19 February 2010

Distinctive Birdlife of Kamchatka Region - Circa A.D. 1755

This article is based upon "The History of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent; Illustrated with Maps and Cuts" as published at Petersbourg, by Order of her Imperial Majesty. Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov was the author of the original 1755 publication, which was subsequently translated from Russian into the English language by James Grieve, M.D., in Europe. Specific information on species identification - and additional text - is from "Birds of the Early Explorers in the Northern Pacific", by Theed Pearse (published in 1968). [Map of Kamchatka, ca. 1755]

Kamtschatka Birds

Included in the geographical description chapter was the following paragraph:

"Among the known birds have been observed magpies, crows, sea-gulls, water-cranes, swans, ducks, quails, plovers, Greenland pigeons, and fowls called northern ducks; and among the unknown, ten kinds distinguishable from any species of European fowl."

There is also an interesting comment on how bird feathers were used for ornamental purposes.

The Kamtschatdales "esteem it a particular ornament to make holes on their faces in different parts, in which they place various stones and bones; others wear in their nostrils feathers about two inches long; some wear bones of the same sort in their under lips, and others upon the forehead."

The majority of the information on the birds was in the chapter about the natural history, and is presented as originally translated. Footnotes are not included and the f used for the s in the historic typography has been replaced. The following is a combination of the original tome and the latter birdly interpretation. The original text takes precedence, with additions limited to those items which did not appear in the Grieve translation. The text is given nearly verbatim, in all its grammatical splendor, or disorder in some instances.

Chapter X. Of the Birds.

Kamtschatka abounds in birds, but the inhabitants make less use of them than of roots and fishes: the reason of this is, that they don't well know how to catch them; and their fishery is so advantageous to them, that to leave that and go a bird-catching would be as ridiculous as for the husbandman to leave his plough and go a shooting.

I shall here divide the birds into three classes; the first, sea fowls; the second, the fresh-water fowls; and the third, those which frequent the woods and fields.

Class I. Of the Sea Fowls.

The sea fowls are found in greater plenty about the coast of the Eastern Ocean, than that of the Penschinska sea; for the coast of the Eastern Ocean is more hilly and convenient for breeding.

The ipatka is well known to all writers of natural history by the name of anas arctica, commonly called in England puffins. It is found upon the coast of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski islands, and even upon the Penschinska bay, almost as far as Ochotska. It is about the bigness of, or rather smaller than, a common duck; its head and neck are of a bluish black; the back is black; the belly and all below white; its bill red, and broad towards the root, but somewhat narrower towards the point; upon each side are three furrows; its legs are red, its feet webbed, and its nails small, crooked, and black; its flesh is hard; its eggs are like hen's eggs; it builds its nest with grass on the cliffs of the rocks. The Kamtschadales and Kuriles wear the bills of these birds about their necks fastened to straps; and, according to their superstition, their mamans, or priests, must put them on with proper ceremony, to procure them good fortune.

They catch ducks with nets in the following manner: In a wood that happens to stand between two lakes or between a lake and a river, they cut a strait passage through which the ducks fly during the summer; here, in the harvest, when the fishery is over the natives fasten to long poles several nets, which in the evenings they raise as high as the ducks are used to mount; round the nets a string is drawn, by which they can reef them together, as soon as they find the ducks entangled; but they sometimes fly with such force and in such numbers, that they break through. They likewise catch them in small rivers with nets stretched across the stream; but this is not a method peculiar to Kamchatka.

To this class belong the gagari, or columbus, of which there are four species, three of which are large and the other small. In a footnote 1. Colymbus maximus Gesn. Stell. 2. Colymbus articus lumme dictus Worm. 3. Colymbus macula sub mente castanea Stell. 4. Colymbus sive podiceps cinereus ejusdem, three of which are large and the other small; the first of largest has a tail; the second a clay coloured spot upon its neck, a little above the crop; the third is called by Wurmius, the northern lumme and Marsilius calls the fourth the lumme. The natives pretend to foretell the change of weather by their and flying; for they think the wind must always blow from that point towards which they fly, however they are frequently deceived in their judgment. Kamchadalians and Kurilians wear beaks of these birds strung on leather straps and decorated with dyed seal wool as a kind of necklace. The native shaman-woman put these necklaces on them as an amulet bringing them luck.

Another species of these birds is called meuchagatka, and in Ochotska, igilma : this only differs from the former in being all black, and having two yellowish white tufts upon its head, which lie all along from its ears to its neck like locks of hair. To the best of my remembrance this bird has never yet been described. Mr. Steller and I sent some of these species of birds to the Imperial Museum. Among those sent by Mr. Steller there was a third kind which is found upon the island Bondena, in Angermannia, and upon the Caroline islands; and is some-what less than the other two; its colour is like that of the ipatka, except that its bill and legs are black, and that there are two white sprigs upon its forehead, which reach from the eye to the bill.

The aru, or kara, belongs to this class. It is larger than a duck; the head, neck, and back are black; the bill long, strait, black, and sharp; the legs black with a cast of red; it has three black toes, and is web-footed. Great numbers of these are found upon the rocky islands; and the inhabitants kill them for the sake of their flesh, though tough and bad tasted; but more so for their skins, of which, as well as those of other sea fowls, they make themselves garments. Their eggs are reckoned a great delicacy.

There are two kinds of tchaiki, or cormorants, found upon this coast, which are hardly observed any where else. They are about the bigness of a goose, have a strait reddish bill about five inches long, and sharp on the edges, and four nostrils, such as other cormorants have, two being near the forehead as are found in other birds which are thought to prognosticate storms, and are thence named Procellaria; their heads are of the middling size; their eyes black; their tails eight inches long; and their legs are covered with hair to the knees, but below them are bare; they have three toes of a bluish colour, and are web-footed; their wings extend more than a fathom; they are sometimes speckled; they appear often near the more, but can't stand strait upon dry ground, their feet being so near the tail that they are not able to balance their bodies : they fly slow even when hungry, but when full of meat they cannot raise themselves from the ground; and, having eat too much, they ease their stomachs by throwing it up; they have a wide throat, and swallow fish whole; their flesh is very tough and sinewy, therefore the natives seldom eat it, but in great necessity, killing them principally for the fake of their bladders, which they use instead of corks to their nets. The way of catching them is singular, being angled for as fishes are, in the following manner: they fasten a thick iron, or wooden hook to a long rope or strap, baiting the hook with a whole fish, the point of which comes out near the back fin, and then throw it into the sea; this the cormorants observing gather about it in flocks, and quarrel among themselves who shall have the prize, until the strongest obtains it and swallows it; then being drawn on more, they take out the hook and bait by putting their hands into its throat. Sometimes they fasten a live cormorant, which they call a decoy, to the rope, and that it may not swallow the bait, tie down its bill with a cord: the others seeing the decoy swim so near the more, come with greater security to the bait. The Kamtschadales make needle cases, and combs to comb their nettles, of the bones of their wings.

Besides the above named tchaiki, or cormorant, there is another species which haunt the rivers; they are called robbers, because they take the prey from the small birds; their tail is forked like that of a swallow.

The fowl urile plentiful, called by writers sea raven, bigness common goose, long neck, small head, bluish black except on its thighs where they are white in tufts, also some long white feathers like hair here and there upon its neck, has red membrane round eyes, strait bill black above reddish below, feet black webbed. When swimming holds up head, flying stretches it out like a Crane.

Gulls are especially abundant on these seas; their loud cries are very troublesome to inhabitants of the seaside. Among them there are two kinds nowhere observed in other places, which differ each to other only in their plumage, for the one is black, and the other whiter.

They are in size like a large goose. The beak straight, crooked at the end, reddish, and nearly 3 vershoks [a vershok is equal to 4.49 cm] or more in length, very sharp at the edges. Of nostrils they have four, namely, two identical with those of other gulls, and two more tubelike situated near the front like in the sea-birds for forecasting weather, which are called by nowaday authors as procellaria. Heads in them of moderate size. Eyes black. The neck short. The tail of 5 vershoks in length. Legs feathered up to knee, and the rest is naked, bluish with three toes connected by the web of the same colour, claws short and straight. The expanded wings are broader than one sazhen (7 feet). Among these birds there are also mottled ones, but they considered as juveniles.

They live along the sea-shores, especially when fishes, they feed on, are going upstream out of the sea in rivers. On the shore they cannot stand in upright posture for their legs, like in loons, are so close to the tail, and due to this reason they cannot keep their body in balance. When in flight they are heavy and hungry. Being gorged they are unable to take wing. Being overeated they vomit to facilitate themself. Their throat is so wide that they can swallow a large fish whole. Their flesh is very tough and stringy, hence the Kamchadalians don't use such a meal unless being compelled to do so by hunger. They catch these birds only for making bladders they attach to their nets instead of floats.

The procellaria, or storm birds, are about the bigness of a swallow; their feathers are all black, except the tops of their wings, which are white; their bill and legs black. They haunt about the islands, and before a storm they fly low and skim the sea, and sometimes into the ships, which the sailors look upon as the sign of an approaching violent gale.

The stariki, or glupisha, belong to this species. The stariki are about the bigness of a pigeon; have bluish bills, and bluish black feathers about the nostrils, which look like bristles; the feathers of the head are of the same colour, interspersed here and there with white ones, which are longer and thinner than the rest; the upper part of the neck is black, but the lower black and white speckled. The belly is white, the wings short, the large feathers of which are black, and the rest blue; the sides and tail are black; the feet are red and webbed; and the nails black and small: it haunts about rocky islands, where it likewise builds its nest. The Kamtschadales catch these fowls easier than they do the tchaiki, or cormorants: they put on a fur coat of a particular make, and letting their hands fall down, fit down in a proper place, and wait for the evening; when the birds returning from the sea seek to retire into holes for the night, and in the dark several of them fly into their furs, and are caught.

Among the birds described by Mr. Steller are the black starikis, whose bills are as red as vermillion, the right side of which is crooked; it has a white tuft upon its head. He saw a third species in America, which was spotted black and white.

The glupisha are about the largeness of the common river cormorants; and are found upon the rocky islands, in high steep places; their colours are grey, white, and black; and are perhaps called glupisha, that is, foolish, because they frequently fly into the boats. Mr. Steller says, that numbers of them are caught in the fourth and fifth Kurilski islands, which the inhabitants dry in the sun; they squeeze the fat through the skin, which passes very easily, and use it for burning. He likewise writes that all the rocky islands in the sea between Kamtschatka and America are covered with them. He has seen some as large as a goose, or an eagle; their bills are crooked and yellowish; their eyes are large like those of an owl; they are black intermixed with white spots over the whole body. He once saw, 200 versts from land, great numbers of them feeding upon a dead whale, which served them also to appearance for lodging; and in his passage through the Penschinska sea, he saw many of the glupisha, some of which were black, and others white; but none of them came so near the vessel as to be exactly observed.

The kaiover, or kaior, a bird of this species, is black, with its bill and feet red; builds its nest, which is very curious, upon high rocks in the sea, and whistles very loud, for which reason the Cossacks call it ivoshik, or post-boy. I never saw this bird.

The fowl urile, of which there is great plenty in Kamtschatka, called, by writers, sea ravens, is about the bigness of a common goose, with a long neck and small head; the feathers upon the whole body are of a bluish black, except upon its thighs, where they are white and in tufts; there are also some long white feathers like hairs, here and thereupon its neck; it has a red membrane or skin round the eyes, a strait bill, black above and reddish below; and its feet are black and webbed : when it swims it holds up its head, but flying, it stretches it out like a crane; it flies swift, but rises heavily; and feeds upon fish, which it swallows whole : in the night time, these fowls stand in rows upon the edges of the cliffs, from which in their sleep they frequently fall into the water; where they are caught by the stone foxes, who watch for them; they breed in the month of July; their eggs are green, about the bigness of a hen's egg, and being boiled thicken a little, but are ill tasted; however the Kamtshadales climb the highest rocks in search of them, at the hazard of their lives. They catch them with nets, and in the evening with nooses fastened to a long pole; and these creatures are so void of apprehension, that, though they see the next fowl to themselves taken away, they will fit still and receive the noose, 'till they are all taken off the cliff; their flesh is hard and sinewy; but the natives prepare it in such a manner that, as victuals are there, it is not bad; they roast it in holes dug in the earth, without plucking off the feathers, or taking out the entrails, and when roasted, they skin and eat it.

The natives say that these birds have no tongue; but this is not true, for they cry in the mornings and evenings : Mr. Steller compares their noise to the sound of a trumpet.

Class II. Of those Birds which haunt for the most part about the fresh Water.

The first of this class is the swan, which is so common in Kamtshatka, both in summer and winter, that the poorest person can have no entertainment without a swan. When they are moulting they hunt them with dogs, and kill them with clubs : in the winter they catch them in those rivers that do not freeze.

Here are seven kinds of geese, which are distinguished thus: large grey geese, gumennisi, short necks, grey and speckled, white necks, small white geese, and foreign. They all come here in the month of May, and depart in the month of October, as Mr. Steller says; who likewise writes, that they come from America, and that he himself saw them pass Bering's island in great flocks, flying east in the harvest and weft in the spring. In Kamtschatka are principally found the large grey geese, the gumennisi, and the grey and speckled; the small white goose is hardly ever found here. Again, in the North Sea, about Kolimi and other rivers, are vast numbers of them; and the best down is brought to Jakutski from these places. They catch them at the time they cast their feathers, in the following manner: - They build huts with two doors, near those places where they most commonly fit at night. The fowler putting a white shirt on, above his cloaths, steals as near the flock as he can; and shewing himself he creeps away upon his hands and feet towards the hut: then going through it, and observing that the geese have followed him, he shuts the door behind him, and running round he comes in at the other door, which shutting likewise, he encloses all the geese.

Mr. Steller observed in the month of July upon Bering's island an eighth kind of geese, about the bigness of the white speckled. Its back, neck, and belly were white; its wings black; its cheeks white, yet somewhat greenish; its eyes black, with a yellow ring; the bill has a black stripe round it, and is red, with a knob like the Chinese or Muscovy geese : this knob is bare and yellowish, except that along it there is a small stripe of bluish black feathers. The natives report that this sort of geese is likewise found upon the first Kurilskey island, however they were never observed upon the continent.

The people of Kamtschatka have different methods of catching geese when they cast their feathers; sometimes they pursue them in boats; sometimes they hunt them with dogs; but most of them are caught in pits, which they dig near those lakes where the geese haunt, and cover up carefully with grass: these the geese coming upon the shore fall into, and are caught.

There are eleven different species of ducks in Kamtschatka; namely, the selesni, sharp tails, tcherneti, plutonosi, svafi, krohali, lutki, gogoli, tchirki, turpani, and stone ducks: of which the selesni, tchirki, krohali, and gogoli, winter among the springs; all the rest come in the spring, and fly away in harvest, as the geese do.

The sharp tails are of that kind which writers call the anas caudacuta, sive havelda islandica. They haunt in the bays of the sea, or about the mouths of great rivers: they swim in flocks, and with their cry, which is extraordinary, make no disagreeable musick. Mr. Steller writes, that the larynx, or lower part of their throat, has three openings, covered with thin membranes. The natives call this fowl aangitch, from their manner of crying.

The turpan is called by writers the black duck. They are not so numerous about Kamtschatka as at Ochotska, where they are caught in great plenty about the equinox. Fifty or more of the natives here going out in boats surround a whole flock, which in time of the flood they drive into the mouth of the river Ochotska; and so soon as it begins to ebb, and the water in the bay turns low, all the inhabitants fall upon them, and kill them with clubs in such numbers, that every one gets 20 or 30 for his share.

The stone ducks have not hitherto been observed in any other place; they breed in the summer time in the rivers. The drakes are particularly beautiful, their head being like black velvet, and having two white spots upon their nose, which extend beyond the eyes, and end in a clay-coloured stripe behind their head: there is a small white spot near each ear; their bills are broad and flat, like those of other ducks; they are of a bluish colour, and their necks of a bluish black; upon their breasts are black feathers with a white border below; the feathers are smaller and broader above; the fore part of the back and belly are bluish, but more blackish towards the tail; across both wings are broad white stripes with black borders; their fides, under the wings, are of a clay colour; the large feathers of the wings, except six, bluish; these are black and roughish like velvet; the two last are white with black borders, and the second row of the large wing feathers are all black, the third grey, two only of these feathers having white spots upon their ends: their tails are sharp, and their feet pale coloured: they weigh about two pounds. The female is far from being so beautiful: her feathers are black, each being somewhat yellowish at the end, with a small white stripe the head is black, and upon its temples are small white spots: it weighs about a pound and a half.

In the harvest the females are found in the rivers, but none of the drakes: they are very stupid and easily caught where the waters are clear and shallow, for they do not fly away at the sight of a man, but only dive, and therefore may be easily killed with poles, as I myself have frequently done. Mr. Steller saw several of this kind of ducks in the American islands.

They catch the ducks with nets in the following manner: in a wood that happens to stand between two lakes, or between a lake and a river, they cut a strait passage, through which the ducks fly during the summer; here in the harvest, when the fishery is over, the natives fasten to long poles several nets, which in the evenings they raise as high as the ducks are used to mount: round the nets a string is drawn, by which they can reef them together, as soon as they find the ducks entangled; but they sometimes fly with such force and in such numbers, that they break through. They likewise catch them in small rivers with nets stretched across the stream : but this is a method not peculiar to Kamtschatka.

To this class belongs likewise the gagari, or columbus, of which there are four species, three of which are large, and the other small : the first of the largest has a tail; the second a clay coloured spot upon its neck, a little above the crop : the third is called by Wormius, the northern lumme; and Marsilius calls the fourth the little lumme. The natives pretend to foretell the change of weather by their crying and flying; for they think that the wind must always blow from that point towards which they fly: however they are frequently deceived in their judgment.

Here are also found great numbers of small birds, such as plovers and snipes of different sorts, which they catch with snares and gins.

Class III. Of the Land Fowls.

The chief of these birds is the eagle, of which there are four species in Kamtschatka: the first is the black eagle, with a white head, tail, and feet. These are rare upon the main land of Kamtschatka; but, according to Mr. Steller, they are found in plenty on the islands between it and America. They make their nests (which are near six feet in diameter, and about a foot thick) of shrubs upon high cliffs, and in the beginning of July, lay two eggs. The young ones are as white as snow : these he saw upon Bering's island, but not without danger from the old ones, which, even when he did not the least hurt to their young, attacked him with such violence that he could scarce defend himself from them with his stick. The second is the white eagle, which the Tungusi call elo: this I saw near Nertchinski; however it is not white but grey. Mr. Steller says, that this is bred upon the river Hariouskovoi which runs into the Penschinska sea. The third is the black and white spotted eagle. The fourth, the dark clay-coloured eagle, the extremities of whose wings and tail are spotted: these two last mentioned abound most here. The natives eat the eagles, and esteem them agreeable food.

Here are likewise several other birds of prey, such as vultures, hawks of various kinds, owls, and above all, ravens, crows, and magpies, which are the same with those in Europe. Besides, there are great numbers of cuckoos, water sparrows, growse, partridges, thrushes, larks, swallows, and several other small birds, whose appearance in the spring the natives expect with great impatience, and thence begin their new year.

Sitta Europa Nuthatch winters also in the birch forests and a species of tit.

... on the calm sea near Yavenskof were a few small ice floes, on them not rarely Anas hyemalis along the beach at the base of the promontory single Emberiza nivalis.

In the conclusion of this chapter we have added a list of some plants, beasts, fishes, and birds, with their names in the English, Russian, Kamtsehatka, Koratski, and Kurilski languages.

Table: A list of some plants, beasts, fishes, and birds; with their Names in the English, Russian, Kamtschatka, Koratski, and Kurilski Languages.

English - Russian - Kamchatka - Koratski - Kurilski
Great Sea Cormorant - Beloshoi tchaika - atutna - Attaimen - Pongapiphe
Swan - Lebed - Matame - Kamtchan
Geese - Gousses - Ksude - Gecloaine - Kuntape
A drake - Celesna - Baine - Gectchogatche - Bakariku
Stone ducks - Kammenia utki - Nikihgike - unknown - Vaiout
Widgeons - Gargari, Ashoai - Yovaiva - ... - Cesse
Eagles - Orli - Selche - Tilmiti - Surgoar
Hawkes - Saholi - Shishi - Tilmitil
Partridges - Kuropatki - Euihtchitche - Euette - Niepue
Crows - Voronnil - Kaka - Tchautchayao-la yelle - Paskure
Magpies - Saroki - Nahitchectche - Unkitigin - Kakuk
Ravens - Voronitcherni - Hagulhak - Nimette yelle
Swallows - Laslotchki - Kaiukutche - Kavaliugek - Kuahan
Larks - Javoronki - Tchelaalia - Geatcheiere - Rikintchire
Cuckows - Kokashke - Keakoutchitche - Kaikuke - Kahkok
Snipes - Kuliki - Soakulutche - Tcheiaa - Etchimumama

This is the end of the text as given in the two primary sources about the historic ornithology.

Kamchatska Species

The species denoted in the account of birds are given here in this list, presented in alphabetic order, and derived from the two primary sources. Nearly 60 species are documented.

Ancient Murrelet - stariks; ancient murrelet

Arctic Loon - Colymbus articus; northern loon

Bean Goose - large gray gumennik; bean goose

Black Scoter - turpan duck; common scoter, Anas niger

Black-billed Magpie - magpies

Black-headed Gull - gray gulls along the river; probably, also, the black-headed gull

Brant - nemck goose; brent goose

Brown Dipper - aquatic sparrows; Cinclus pallasi, dipper

Carrion Crow - carrion-crows; Corvus corone

Common Greenshank - greenshank; Tringa nebularia

Common Merganser - sviyaz duck; Mergus merganser

Common Raven - raven, Corvus corax

Common Redpoll - linnets

Cormorant - tchaiki, or cormorant

Cuckoos - cuckooes; i.e., Cuculus canorus - the common cuckoo, and Cuculus optatus - oriental cuckoo

Eagle - white eagle; called the yelo

Emperor Goose - white-necked geese; emperor goose

Eurasian Hobby - kopchiks; probably Falco subbuteo

Eurasian Oystercatcher - tartar magpies; Haematopus ostralegus

Eurasian Skylark - skylarks; Alauda arvensis

Eurasian Wigeon - plotonosy duck; European wigeon

Fulmar - fulmars; grey; called glupyshi

Goldeneye - goldeneyes winter on springs

Goose - short-necked kazarkas; goose

Greater White-fronted Goose - gray and mottled kazarkas; white-fronted goose

Green-winged Teal - gogol duck; common teal, Anas crecca

Gyrfalcon - falcons; Falco gyrfalco

Harlequin Duck - stone ducks; Harlequin duck

Hooded Merganser - krokhal duck; hooded merganser

Horned Puffin - ipatka; Fratercula corniculata; i.e., northern duck

Jaeger - razboiniki; three species of Stercorarius; jaeger

King Eider - a species of goose; king eider in footnote

Leach's Storm-Petrel - Procellaria; namely Leach's storm-petrel

Lesser Sand Plover - plovers; Charadrius mongolus

Long-tailed Duck - lutok duck; old squaw

Long-tailed Jaeger - species called robbers; Sterocorarius longicaudus

Mallard - selezen duck; mallard

Mew Gull - gray gulls along the river; mew gull

Northern Fulmar - fulmar; white; Fulmarus glacialis

Northern Harrier - lun; means Cirsus; possibly also snowy owl

Northern Pintail - wostrokhvost duck; pintail

Northern Shoveller - chernet duck; shoveller

Osprey - ospreys

Owl - eagle-owls; owls; hawk owl or short-eared owl

Pelagic Shag - sea raven; Phalacrocorax pelagicus; pelagic cormorant

Peregrine Falcon - goshawks; Falco peregrinus

Pigeon Guillemot - kaiover, or kayur; pigeon guillemot

Pine Grosbeak - pine-grosbeaks

Ptarmigan - partridges; willow ptarmigan, and rock ptarmigan

Red Crossbill - crossbills; Loxia curvirostra

Red-breasted Merganser - sviyaz duck; Mergus serrator

Red-faced Shag - uri; red-faced cormorant; Phalacrocorax urile

Red-necked Grebe - red-necked grebe; a minor loon

Red-throated Loon - Colymbus macula; on the neck above the crop, a clay-coloured spot

Shorebird - different kinds of waders

Short-tailed Albatross - two kinds of gulls; one black, and one white; adult and young short-tailed albatross

Short-tailed Shearwater - fulmar; black; short-tailed shearwater

Siberian Crane - Grus leucogeranus; does not breed in Kamchatka

Snow Goose - white geese; snow goose

Spotted Nutcracker - ronzhi; nutcracker

Swallow - swallows; barn swallow, and bank swallow

Tern - martyshki; tern

Thick-billed Murre - aru or karu; Uria lomvia

Thrush - thrushes; Turdus obscurus - eyebrowed thrush, and Turdus eunomus - dusky thrush

Tufted Puffin - mychagatka; at Okhotak the iglyma; Lunda cirrhata

Western Capercaillie - black grouses - male of Tetrao urogalloides; capercaillies - female Tetrao urogalloides

Whiskered Auklet - black stariks; whiskered auklet

White Wagtail - white wagtails

White-tailed Eagle - black eagle, with head, tail and feet white; Haliaeetus albicilla; black-white mottled eagle, and, dark-clay coloured eagle - young

White-winged Scoter - chirok duck; white-winged scoter

Whooper Swan - swan; whooper swan

Woodpeckers - pied woodpeckers; hairy, downy and northern three-toed woodpecker

Yellow-billed Loon - Colymbus maximus; large loon with a tail

Thus was an interesting rendition presented for the birdlife of a particular region during a period long past yet remembered because of the writing effort by Krasheninnikov, and is another important work of historic ornithology.

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