29 March 2017

Yearly Comparison of Wildbirds at Twin Oaks WMA

Two recent visits to Twin Oaks WMA, Johnson county, Nebraska, provide current bird records that when combined with sightings made years ago, provide an interesting list of the local wildbirds.

This tally of 101 species is based upon more than 750 records, derived from observations on 55 different days. The largest number of species have occurred in May and June; notably from May 18th to June 7th. No records are available for November or December.

During the March 26th visit during a field trip of the Wachiska Audubon Society, 31 species were recorded, according to a list graciously provided by Shari Schwartz. There had also been a scouting trip made on March 20th. Some of the new additions to the avifauna list for this locality included the Canada Goose, Northern Pintail, Cooper’s Hawk, Eurasian Collared Dove (which would not have been present in the vicinity during the 1980s), Brown Creeper, Carolina Wren, Golden-crowned Kinglet and Fox Sparrow.

This is a composite list of species as noted during different years, with the value given indicating the number of times the species was observed. Further details are available on the number of birds counted.

Common Name 1981 1982 1985 2003 2017
Snow Goose -- -- -- 1 --
Canada Goose -- -- -- -- 1
Wood Duck -- 2 -- -- 1
Mallard 1 -- -- -- --
Blue-winged Teal -- 2 -- -- --
Northern Pintail -- -- -- -- 1
Ring-necked Pheasant 1 -- -- -- --
Wild Turkey -- 3 -- -- --
Northern Bobwhite 1 3 -- -- --
Double-crested Cormorant 1 -- -- -- --
Great Blue Heron 4 1 -- 1 --
Green Heron 1 -- -- -- --
Turkey Vulture 6 4 -- -- 2
Northern Harrier -- -- -- 1 --
Sharp-shinned Hawk 4 -- -- -- --
Cooper's Hawk -- -- -- -- 1
Broad-winged Hawk 1 -- -- -- --
Red-tailed Hawk 2 7 -- 1 2
American Kestrel 1 1 -- 1 1
Killdeer 7 7 -- -- 2
Spotted Sandpiper 3 1 -- -- --
Solitary Sandpiper 1 -- -- -- --
Upland Sandpiper 6 5 -- -- --
Franklin's Gull 2 -- -- -- --
Eurasian Collared-Dove -- -- -- -- 1
Mourning Dove 11 8 -- -- 1
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 5 6 -- -- --
Black-billed Cuckoo 3 -- -- -- --
Eastern Screech-Owl -- -- -- 1 --
Great Horned Owl 5 6 -- 1 --
Barred Owl -- 1 -- -- --
Common Nighthawk 3 1 -- -- --
Common Poorwill -- 2 -- -- --
Eastern Whip-poor-will 1 2 -- -- --
Chimney Swift 5 5 -- -- --
Belted Kingfisher 3 1 -- -- 2
Red-headed Woodpecker 8 8 -- -- --
Red-bellied Woodpecker 5 8 -- 1 1
Downy Woodpecker 8 6 -- 1 --
Northern Flicker 11 7 -- 1 1
Eastern Wood-Pewee -- 4 -- -- --
Least Flycatcher -- 1 -- -- --
Eastern Phoebe 9 2 -- -- 2
Great Crested Flycatcher 3 5 -- -- --
Eastern Kingbird 11 8 -- -- --
Loggerhead Shrike 3 4 -- -- --
Warbling Vireo 1 2 -- -- --
Philadelphia Vireo 1 -- -- -- --
Blue Jay 12 9 -- 1 2
American Crow 7 8 -- 1 2
Northern Rough-winged Swallow 5 4 -- -- --
Barn Swallow 13 7 -- -- --
Black-capped Chickadee 11 9 -- 1 1
Tufted Titmouse 1 1 -- -- 1
White-breasted Nuthatch 5 9 -- -- 1
Brown Creeper -- -- -- -- 1
Carolina Wren -- -- -- -- 2
House Wren 10 6 -- -- --
Golden-crowned Kinglet -- -- -- -- 1
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 4 -- -- -- --
Eastern Bluebird 9 6 1 1 1
Veery -- 1 -- -- --
Swainson's Thrush -- 1 -- -- --
Hermit Thrush 1 -- -- -- --
American Robin 8 7 -- 1 1
Gray Catbird 7 1 -- -- --
Northern Mockingbird 6 5 1 -- --
Brown Thrasher 5 8 -- -- --
European Starling 3 3 -- -- 1
Cedar Waxwing 1 1 -- -- --
Yellow Warbler 1 3 -- -- --
Yellow-rumped Warbler -- -- -- 1 --
Black-and-white Warbler -- 1 -- -- --
American Redstart -- 1 -- -- --
Common Yellowthroat 4 4 -- -- --
Eastern Towhee 3 2 -- -- --
American Tree Sparrow 1 4 -- 1 --
Chipping Sparrow -- 1 -- -- --
Clay-colored Sparrow 2 -- -- -- --
Field Sparrow 9 7 -- -- --
Lark Sparrow 6 2 -- -- --
Savannah Sparrow -- 2 -- -- --
Grasshopper Sparrow 9 8 -- -- --
Fox Sparrow -- -- -- -- 2
Song Sparrow 5 1 -- -- 1
Harris's Sparrow 1 2 -- 1 --
Dark-eyed Junco -- 1 -- 1 2
Northern Cardinal 11 7 -- 1 1
Rose-breasted Grosbeak 2 5 -- -- --
Indigo Bunting 2 4 -- -- --
Dickcissel 5 5 -- -- --
Bobolink 1 -- -- -- --
Red-winged Blackbird 10 8 -- 1 1
Eastern Meadowlark 10 8 -- 1 1
Western Meadowlark 7 5 -- -- --
Common Grackle 8 7 -- 1 --
Brown-headed Cowbird 10 7 -- -- --
Orchard Oriole 4 5 -- -- --
Baltimore Oriole 8 6 -- -- --
American Goldfinch 5 5 -- 1 1
House Sparrow 7 6 -- -- 1

This larger-sized wildlife area has a very nice diversity of habitats, including a small native prairie and - along its western edge - a section of the Nemaha river. Because of the variety of plant communities, research was conducted in the early 1980s to evaluate the species of wildbirds and how their occurrence was influenced by typical habitat management practices carried out by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (i.e.; “The effects of habitat management on nongame birds” which was graduate school work done by James E. Ducey and as published as a M.S. thesis issued in August, 1984). A majority of the bird records available are from this project.

It would be interesting and valuable to get further details of the local – modern-era - avifauna during the mid-mid to early June breeding season period.

Legislator Brewer Visits Valentine for Meeting

About 25 people attended the town hall meeting held by Nebraska senator Tom Brewer at Valentine on March 25th.

During the first half of the meeting, senator Brewer summarized pertinent legislative activities during the first 53 days of the session, noting the 13 bills he’d introduced and mentioning that he was a sponsor of 26 others.

He indicated there has been a “battle” between those that want to increase taxes (property, income and sales) and those that want to reduce the tax burden. Property taxes were specifically noted as they are “bleeding people” and putting “in jeopardy farms and ranches” that struggle on limited income to have the money needed to pay yearly taxes.

Senator Brewer’s priority bill was LB 340, and this legislation has been approved. An especially “radioactive bill” has been LB 505, or the refugee resettlement act. Dialog has been “ugly,” he said, indicating he has been called a “racist” and “horrible human being,” he said. The intent of the legislation is not to stop refugee resettlement, but to get some accountability. The ongoing influx of refugees has made it difficult to balance the state’s budget, he said.

A question and answer period followed.

A particular point of discussion was why one particular legislator has such an influence on legislative proceedings. This Omaha senator has used filibusters to delay action on legislative bills and kept other legislative measures from being considered. Sen. Brewer noted that this was because the eastern Nebraskan uses every means of legally available means to act, based upon his more than 40 years of legislative involvement.

Whiteclay was another topic of a question, and sen. Brewer indicated that $100,000 is available to clean up the place, which would include removal of abandoned buildings. There is also the potential that the liquor licenses may be revoked by early summer, which could result in other businesses being established, he said.

Brewer was supportive of a request by the Niobrara Council for additional funding. No action has been taken on this, since the revenue committee has not submitted state funding proposals, so any action by the appropriations committee is stalled. The budgetary request is very minimal.

A west-Cherry county rancher asked why LB 504 would be a legislative priority for Brewer in 2018, noting how the bill would affect local control, such as county zoning regulations.

This legislation – which is stalled in committee – would place a moratorium on the development of wind turbine facilities in the sandhill’s region and allow detailed consideration of associated aspects.

Wind energy development is “disjointed,” in the region, Brewer said, adding that more information is needed to for there to be proper decisions.
Brewer and his legislative assistance Tony Baker, then gave special recognition to the many sandhill residents that came to Lincoln to present testimony at the committee hearing for LB 504. At the recent legislative hearing in Lincoln with the natural resources committee, Brewer said there were 21 lawyers present, including some from Omaha firms and others from prominent wind-turbine developers. They spoke against this legislative bill as they are in favor developing wind turbine facilities, with money a primary topic, personally heard at the hearing in Lincoln.

Because of the decision by the committee chairman, this bill is being held in committee, despite the majority of personal and written testimony asking that the bill be presented to the full legislature for consideration.

“There will be no more wind energy once subsidies are gone,” Brewer said. Tax subsidies for wind turbine facilities are now being reduced every year by 20%, and by 2020, according to known details, there will no longer be any sort of subsidy provided by U.S.A. taxpayers in support of these sorts of facilities.

Brewer also commented that a potential change in the placement of the R-Project to a southerly corridor would influence any placement of turbines in Cherry county.

A draft environmental impact assessment prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service indicates such a potential corridor, based upon a draft copy, available in early March. A final version of this document is expected to be made available for public review in June?

The situation with lobbyists working to influence legislators was also conveyed in response to a question from a Valentine resident. There are 49 senators and 488 lobbyists, Brewer said, noting that there are regular events held for the senators so a particular interest group can present a perspective in favor of legislation. Lobbyists take every opportunity available to express their particular view, he said, and they are especially prevalent in the capitol rotunda outside the legislative chamber.

A bit of discussion was given two other items, including enacting legislation that would require Country-Of-Origin-Labeling for beef in Nebraska and bringing an end to the change in the spring and autumn time changes.

Brewer noted that a special feature in his office is a mounted buffalo-head, and visitors enjoy getting their picture of them and the senator with the shaggy mount in the background. The stuffed head came from a bison taken by his daughter and had been a “Butch” Shadbolt animal. It took particular effort to get it properly placed in a manner that conformed to building strictures, he said.

Sen. Brewer suggested that if there are any local or regional issues that may require legislation, effort should be made to define the needs in the next few months so legislation can be written for consideration during the legislative session in 2018.

People from Ainsworth, Wood Lake, Valentine, Kilgore, Nenzel, Cody and Thedford attended the meeting. Prominent among the crowd at a Valentine restaurant, early on a Saturday morning, were numerous opponents and a few proponents of wind turbines in Cherry county. Sen. Brewer answered every question asked during the 70 minute meeting.

17 March 2017

Birds Observed During February in the Valentine Vicinity, 2017

Records were kept for a number of days during the month. Many of these indicate instances are the result of seeing a particular species, so there was a greater interest in avian activities so notes were kept on paper with a sharp-point pencil. Anything less would simply not be acceptable to my long-term manner of observing wild birds in many different habitats, from urban to rural places.

This is the list of species noted during February on a particular date, as indicated atop nearly every column, as a julian date. During the first days of the month, it was quite nice to be outside as one or another Great Horned Owl was heard in the night as it was conveying its claim on land north of the Valentine Mill Pond. Undoubtedly, others of this species were also expressing the same intent elsewhere.

There were other distinctive notes for the month. Each date when wildbirds can be distinctively seen is a day to appreciate. The Canada Goose have certainly been active with their calls resounding at the Mill Pond.

As there were warmer days, larger numbers of Canada Goose and American Robin arrived during the season.

With a lesser sound, yet vivid sound at many place, male Red-winged Blackbirds were present at the same habitat. These blackbirds perch atop a bit of marsh vegetation with their claim as will occur during the pending bird breeding season.

Above the hills north of the Heart City, a single Red-tailed Hawk is soaring above the pines. This singular bird is a resident, and with his mate will build a nest among the habitat. It was a sublime time when the pair was soaring in their - perhaps - once again mate flight as they flew closely together, grasping in a manner centuries old, to establish a nest place where some youngsters would be raised to another generation.

A nice addition to the months' tally included the Townsend's Solitaire with its typical place being a treetop perch. Early season Red-winged Blackbird arrived at the marsh of the Valentine Mill Pond. The local horned owls were noably heard singing to one another during dark hours. The local Red-breasted Nuthatch were also notably heard.

Each of these observations were singularly vivid, as a behavior and featheration indicated the details to, perhaps, once again a particular wildbird, whether in some sort of a wild space or at an urban bird feeder.


Valentine Monthly Bird Tally — species seen, as derived from notations on paper, with each observation then indicated within the BirdRecords table of my Sand Hills database.
Species Proper Name Julian Date 34 36 40 41 43 50 51 57 58
Canada Goose 22 - - - - 350 150 185 - - - - 150
Cackling Goose - - - - - - 1 - - 4 - - - - - -
Mallard 2 - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - 2
Sharp-shinned Hawk 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bald Eagle 1 - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1
Red-tailed Hawk - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - -
Rock Dove - - - - - - 15 - - 10 - - 12 - -
Eurasian Collared Dove - - - - - - 16 - - 10 - - - - 5
Great Horned Owl - - 2 - - - - 2 - - - - - - - -
Red-bellied Woodpecker - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Downy Woodpecker 1 - - 1 1 - - 1 - - - - - -
Hairy Woodpecker - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1
Northern Flicker 1 - - - - 1 - - 1 - - 1 - -
Prairie Falcon - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - -
Blue Jay - - - - 2 - - - - - - 1 1 - -
American Crow - - 2 1 - - 2 3 - - 2 - -
Cedar Waxwing - - - - - - 12 15 - - - - - - - -
Black-capped Chickadee 3 - - 4 2 - - 2 3 - - 2
Red-breasted Nuthatch - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - 1 1
White-breasted Nuthatch 5 - - 4 2 - - 4 - - - - 4
Common Starling - - - - - - 18 - - - - 4 5 - -
Eastern Bluebird - - 1 - - - - 2 2 - - - - - -
Townsend's Solitaire - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
American Robin 10 15 - - 35 - - 15 85 - - 145
House Sparrow 25 - - 25 25 - - 24 - - - - 35
House Finch 2 - - 2 - - 6 3 10 - - 18
American Goldfinch 12 - - 2 - - 8 - - - - - - 4
Red-winged Blackbird - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 - - 3
Dark-eyed Junco - - - - 3 - - 6 1 11 4 6
American Tree Sparrow 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Northern Cardinal - - 1 - - 1 - - 1 1 - - - -

During this month in 2016, there were 24 species observed. The overall tally is 32 species for this month in 2016 and 2017.

The days of February were times of expectation and hope for warmer times. There were extents of cold when there was nothing but endurance to rely on. All of outside nature seemed to have a similar sentiment as cold and snow were prevalent. Even a bit of wildbird song — including the early song of a Northern Cardinal — was an appreciated indication of pending days of warmth, when there would be many birds heard amidst the creek valley, and the streets and trees of the heart city streetscape.

Among this northern Nebraska scene, these wildbirds during this month survived, day-to-day in the manner they know, as seen in so many ways and such few means. Each time was experienced and appreciated!

There are 123 different species that have been noted during the most recent months in the immediate vicinity of Valentine, Nebraska.


15 March 2017

Flora and Other Notes of 1857 Warren Expedition in Nebraska Territory

The government expedition led by Lieutenant Gouverneur Kemble Warren - a topographic engineer of the U.S. Army – arrived in Omaha city, traveling via steamboat from St. Louis. Others of the expedition had travelled on the steamer Twilight to Bellevue. While Warren went to Sioux City, the remainder of the group left the Missouri valley on June 27 and made their way to the Loup Fork.

While crossing the Elk Horn on June 30th, topographer J.H. Snowden in his daily journal of notable events and weather conditions, wrote of scrub oak, cottonwood and ash growing on the valley bluffs. Prairie land was noted further along, and was prevalent along the bottom of the Platte river.

Upon reaching the river further along on July 2nd: “The wood along the river is cottonwood in groves some of which are quite large, however not extending far back from the stream.” Near a place called “White lake” just eastward of Columbus city, the cottonwood was principally limited to islands in the Platte.

On July 11th, cottonwood logs 18 inches in diameter and 12 feet long were used to build a raft to transport supplies across the Elk Horn, Warren wrote in his journal. On the 14th was some “rough oak wood and ash” were noted as this party was making their way across Shell creek and to join up with Snowden and others on the Loup fork.

After the rendezvous, on July 19th, the expedition started westward up the Loup, its channel denoted by a fringe of cottonwoods. The party included military men, 24 employees as teamsters and herders and two hunters. Overall there were 51 men and provisions for one month, Warren wrote in his journal. There were eleven mule-drawn wagons and an ambulance, with 77 mules and 23 horses.

The first camp was at Looking Glass creek where the settlement of Monroe was being established. Just before this place, wood was limited to islands in the river. After going through Genoa and reaching Beaver creek, scrub oak and cottonwood were noted by J. Hudson Snowden, who was responsible for noting the topography. Near an abandoned Pawnee village: “All the ravines near this village are filled with oak,” he wrote. On reaching the mouth of the Calamus river on July 21st, scrub oak filled all the ravines, as observed by Mr. P.M. Engel, another topographer.

The next day while near the mouth of the North fork of the Loup, Snowden noted: “The wood thus far decreases as we ascent the valley being confined to islands and isolated points where the fires which yearly consume the grass, can-not reach it.”

Cedar and oak filled area ravines on the 23rd while at Warren’s fork, the lieutenant noted during his foray to the north fork.

Along the Middle fork route and for a distance of nine miles, most of the grass had been “burned out” and the fire was moving to the north and northwest, Snowden’s entry for the day mentioned. Most of the wood was limited to islands and isolated points.

On the 24th there was plenty of cottonwood along what was called “Carrey’s fork.” Also present were willow bushes and groves. Cottonwood continued to occur during the route traveled on the 25th with buffalo grass growing on the river bottom.

A few pine trees on the bluffs were seen on the 27th while along the Loup fork, noted Warren. Snowden referred to three of four of these trees.
On the 28th, Snowden noted that portions of the sand hills were nearly entirely “destitute” of vegetation. There were a few cherry and currant bushes.

Buffalo were abundant as the month ended. The grass in area was “inferior” and had been eaten down by large herds of these grazers.
On August 2nd, Warren and Dr. F.V. Hayden went about 17 miles south to what was called the Sandhills Fork, which was probably the waterway that would become known as the Dismal river. There were oak, ash and cherry growing on its bank.

Along the middle fork on August 4th: “Wood oak ash cedar. Cherries abundant not quite ripe,” Warren wrote. Snowden noted: “… wood begins ash oak etc. which now grows in considerable quantities along the valley and in the ravines. … A great many plum & cherry bushes flourish around our camp, the latter being loaded with fruit.”

On the next day Warren wrote: “The sand hills are generally covered with grass, and quite firm, but they are composed of immense hilly masses the surface of which are formed into small hills.” Cedar and oak present at the camp.

Near camp on the 9th, were “many sand cherry bushes, which grow to the height of about one-foot, and laden with fruit now ripe” Snowden wrote. A party that went a couple of miles northward to a fresh water lake, returned with some ash wood found along the border of a lake with potable water. The day’s march was seven miles. Other salt water lakes were noted as being “destitute” of vegetation except a “salt-rush” with the edge of the lake encrusted with salt.

On the 10th, in the western sand hills Snowden noted two fresh water lakes with a “luxuriant growth of grass rushes & weed around them and a few stunted ash trees, goose-berry and cherry bushes on the sides of the hills.” Warren wrote that the lakes were “very nearly covered with grass rushes and flags…”

The “numerous freshwater and saline lakes are scattered about these sandhills, affording a resort for myriads of water birds, ducks, geese, gulls, &c.,” according to Hayden’s report.

During the day, Snowden wrote about the impact of wind on the hills’ vegetation: “The road to day was very sandy and hard on the animals, especially when crossing the ridges between the valleys, where the winds cut the sand out of the sides of the hills, and blow away all the vegetation.”

This would be a reference to blowouts. This could also be the sort of habitat where the blowout penstemon would occur.

The party reached L’eau qui court – the “swift flowing stream” – on August 13th, where “A few cottonwood trees fringed the river,” Snowden wrote. Short buffalo grass grew on a high mesa on the north side of the river.

Pine were noted later in the day, and continued to occur on the valley bluffs. Also notable for these days were many signs of travelling Indians.
The entire expedition then went westward to Laramie for refitting, leaving the Niobrara valley on the 15th of August.

Numerous days later, while some of the military men continued explorations in the Black Hills and adjacent Dakota territory, a group under the direction of Lieut. James McMillan that included Snowden returned to the valley of L’eau qui court, moving slowly eastward along the running water.

Along the Niobrara River Valley

As the party moved along the Niobrarah river valley, a few cottonwoods were noted again on September 22nd and provided a scant bit of wood to burn. During some of the days, there was no wood available for the cooking fires.

Mr. Snowden mapped the route of the expedition while Mr. Engel travelled along the river, preparing maps of its topography. Reptile species were collected and then identified later.

Along the river bottom were there was “very fine” grass “intermixed with many rushes of which the animals are exceedingly fond.”

On the 23rd along the river, Snowden noted on the river bottom where “cottonwood, ash cherry trees grow to some extent and with many grape vines hanging in rich festoons over the branches … the cherry & grape are now ripe, but the later are very acid.” There were some pine on the bluffs.

For a portion of the day’s travel, Snowden conveyed that “Standing Elk accompanied us a few miles before he started back. He told us he knew the country through which we were travelling belonged to the ‘Great Father’ but that the game grass wood etc. all was the property of the Brule Indians and if we had any powder and balls to spare he would be most thankful for it.”

During the day’s travel, there was a small creek that met with the L’eau qui court, and at this place the river water was “running through the rushes and high grass. Also along the running water, there was “considerable growth of ash cottonwood & grape vines plum & cherry bushes flourish on the bottom, these for the past few days have been betraying the presence of the approach of autumn, the foliage partaking of all the varied tints – which blended together – give the bottom of the river as you look down upon it from the high bluff banks a most beautiful & rich appearance.” During the evening, two lodges of Brule Indians (a.k.a. Sichangus or Burnt Thighs) were camped a couple of miles eastward along the river, and some of them visited the camp to sell some fresh meat, Snowden said. Indications of riverine beaver were noted.

On Friday the 25th with the woody vegetation increasing as the descent of the river continued. The grass was not so good. There were pine in the ravines of the river valley, though not “however in sufficient quantity.” A notable wildlife observation for the day “were a great many antelope” of which two were killed for meat to be cooked at camp fires and served hot for supper.

Along the tributary stream explored by Snowden and Dr. Moffett explored on Saturday, unique rock formations were noted. Wood extended only about three miles up this waterway, with only a few large trees. “The slopes of the hills are gradual, and the grass in the valley is very good.” The creek valley was filled with hundreds of antelope, and “the water holes covered with flocks of small teal ducks.” This creek was designated as Antelope creek.

One of the expedition men returned from the mouth of the Snake river – which was across the river from the government camp – having met traders of the American Fur Company. Large flocks of cranes flew over the camp on the evening of September 27th. These would be migrating Sandhill Cranes.
On the 28th, Snowden noted an increase in the extent of pine growing in ravines along the L’eau qui court. A couple of days later, while at the White Earth creek, there was plenty of wood for fuel.

At the White Earth creek (“Maca sca Wakpa,”in tribal language; i.e., modern-era Leander creek) had a valley filled with small pine. Along its banks there were “immense quantities of plum bushes laden with fruit now ripe, and grapes in profusion.” There were “many signs of elk in the vicinity and several were seen,” according to Snowden.

Noted by Snowden on October 3rd in this vicinity where the military expedition camped for about two weeks, there were some red cedar in the hills. “Some large cottonwood grow along the banks of the river, and a few pine in the ravines.”

There was a bountiful amount of wild fruit, appreciated by the men in camp, with the situation well described by Snowden in his October 5th journal entry: “Since we arrived at this camp the men have been luxuriating in plums & grapes the camp being full of the fruit all the time and it has had a very beneficial effect on checking the scurvy which began to show itself amongst the soldiers.”

A species of cane was noted on the sixth in the narrow “Niobrarah” valley that was filled with springs and boggy bottoms. The plants were “fifteen feet high and very thick grow in places. While red willow grow in great profusion in the wet places while the rose & plum & cherry bushes chose higher ground.” A horse sank in a bog along the river valley. “Grass along the river is nearly all dead as are the rushes,” as noted among the hand-written notes kept by Snowden. There was considerable “course grass but the animals do not touch it.” Also present were some scattered cottonwood trees.

A confrontation occurred on October 11th between 22 Brule Indians and the military expedition that was traversing tribal lands. There was a tribal war party that left the Snake river vicinity where chief “White Black Bird” was on his death bed, and the men had a “paper” given him by General Harney, a couple of years earlier. The tribal men rode into the military camp, with bows drawn and arrows nocked in place, with a perspective that the invasive white men were “French traders they were going to take all our property,” according to the Snowden journal. The tribe’s men were “very indignant” and wanted payment for the expedition to traverse their country. One complaint was that the government men “were eating all their plums & wild fruit and burning their wood … that our [i.e., U.S. government] horses were eating and destroying all the grass along the river, that we were killing and scaring away all the game that they met the buffalo & antelope flying from our approach 100 miles before they reached us,” Snowden wrote. General Harney was supposedly required to provide a “license” to come into the country. It was a “difficult time” to get the war party to leave the military camp, he said.

During the morning of the 12th, the Indians departed, with an indicated intent to meet with “Little Thunder” as the transitory lodges of the native people were moving from their place in vicinity of the Snake river.

Numerous men of the expedition traveled a short distance eastward this day, hauling along “picks and spades” to “make a crossing to White Earth Cr. and improve the hill on opposite side” of a natural land feature along the expected route. There was little that could be done on the latter item, Snowden wrote.

Along the river on the 13th day of the month, Snowden wrote: “The grass here is only tolerable, but wood in abundance for fuel. The river here is comparatively straight for some distance. About 100 yards wide filled with sand bars & shallow below our camp it narrows very much to not more than 15 to twenty yds wide is very crooked & rushes along high walls of soft rock, after receiving the waters of the creek which I think is Little Rapid R.” Based upon land topography and map interpretation, this site would be what is now known as McCann Canyon.

Cedar and a “little pine” were denoted by Snowden as seen during the 22 miles of travel during the day.

This expeditionary group spent several days at this place, awaiting the arrival of others associated with the Warren expedition that had traversed other lands of these plains.

On October 15th, the “motley group of men presenting quite a fantastical appearance” as led by Lieut. Warren rejoined the portion of the expedition that had been languishing along the L’eau qui court at a camp by the mouth of what came to be known as Bear creek.

For a few days the group remained at this camp. They talked. They reorganized supplies. There was four inches of snow and cold on the 17th.
As the government expedition continued their eastward trek, they reached the Little Rapid river (i.e., the waterway within the modern-day McCann canyon). Woody plants present “Pine and cedar grow in the bluffs while a few elm & cottonwood & cherry bushes fringe the banks.” There were pine in other area ravines, Snowden wrote. “Pine is increasing in quantity & size as we descend but wood in the bottoms diminishes in quantity.”

On October 19th, Edgar W. Warren denoted some cottonwood growing along the L’eau qui court. Some pine timber was noted along the valley bluffs on the 20th. Words written by Snowden referred to “fine springs” in ravines and sands hills to the north showing “their white summits.” There was timber at a distant place.

Warren again noted pine on the 22nd. Most often his account simply referred to the presence of timber.

A few large ash were noted on the 22nd, growing on the river bottom with “good grass,” a few miles west of the confluence of the Snake river, according to Snowden. The L’eau qui court had “many little low grassy islands.” Pine was said to not be very abundant.

On the 23rd, the running water river for a few miles was “filled with large islands there running in a very narrow channel inclosed between steep & broken hills. Pine in considerable quantities on south side, but none on north before reaching the mouth of the small river which is 2 ½ miles back from our camp.”

The military group as was a relatively short distance eastward of the Mini-cha-duza wakpa (or Rapid creek; now designated as Minnechaduza Creek). On October 25th, near the camp, ravines were “filled with scrub oak, ash, a few elm, plum & cherry bushes in the beds, while their sides are covered by pine.” Near the mouth of a tributary there was found some black walnut.

The route of the expedition continued along the north side of the traversable Niobrara valley.

Near Long Pine creek (initially identified as the creek where the pine grows long out in 1855) on October 26th, with Snowden mentioning pine being present in the ravines, according to his journal entry for the day. On the 27th, there was “plenty of wood” represented by “pine oak etc.” The distance travelled for the day was 20 and 6/10 miles.

The camp site on October 28th was beside the mouth of the Keya Paha (or turtle butte) river. By the end of the month, the expedition was in the Dakota territory, on their way to Fort Randall, on the Missouri river, which was reached on November 1st.

Flora Records of the Era

Assistance in identification of some of these species was provided by professor C. Dewey to Dr. Hayden. This current list of plant species has been developed with the assistance of Dr. David M. Sutherland, professor emeritus at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. His interest and help were essential to convey the historic notations in a manner suitable to current botanical identifications.
Information given is plant family; indicated or designated scientific name; plant locale notes; then plant modern name or other notes; perhaps notations on the interpreted modern locality; and record source.

Amaranthaceae

Froelichia floridana Moq.; sandhills; plains snakecotton; Hayden 1862

Apiaceae

Leptocaulis patens Nutt.; Loup fork; scaleseed, Spermolepis patens; Hayden 1862

Apocynaceae

Acerates viridiflora Ell.; Loup fork, July 27th; green milkweed, Asclepias viridiflora; northeast Custer county; Hayden 1862

Anantherix viridis Nutt.; Loup fork, July 16th; green antelope-horn, Asclepias viridis; area of Loup fork confluence; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Asclepias incarnata Linn.; moist places on the Loup fork; swamp milkweed; Hayden 1862

Asclepias macranthera, Torr.; Loup fork; a milkweed; specimen would need to be studied to determine a proper identity, according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Asclepias Meadi, Torr.; Loup fork, sandhills; Mead’s milkweed [A. Meadii]; not known to occur in Nebraska so specimen would need to be studied to determine proper identification, according to Dr. David Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Brassicaceae

Thelypodium integrifolium; Loup fork; entireleaved thelypody or foxtail thelypodium; Hayden 1862

Caryophyllaceae

Silene Drummondi Hook.; Loup fork; Drummond's campion, Silene drummondii; Hayden 1862

Cistaceae

Lechea major Michx.; Sand hills, Loup fork; probably frostweed, Crocanthemum bicknelii according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Lechea minor Lam.; Sand hills, Loup fork; pinweed, probably Lechia stricta or L. muconata according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Clemmaceae

Cristatella Jamesii Torr. and Gray; Loup fork; James' clammyweed, Polanisia jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray) Iltis; Hayden 1862

Cleomaceae

Polanisia uniglandulosa Gray; on Loup Fork; now clammy weed, Polanisia dodecandra; Nebraska subspecies is trachysperma; Warren 1875

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia sepium R. Br.; Loup fork; hedge bindweed; Hayden 1862

Ipomea leptophylla Torr.; in the sandhills on Loup fork, along the Niobrara, it is very abundant; bush morning-glory; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Crassulaceae

Penthorum seloides Linn.; Loup fork; ditch stonecrop, Penthorum sedioides; Hayden 1862

Cupressaceae

Juniperus virginiana L.; along the Loup fork and the Niobrara river; eastern red cedar; Warren or Snowden journals

Euphorbiaceae

Croton muricatum Nutt.; sandhills; likely sand spurge, Croton texenis, according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Euphorbia hexagona Nutt.; sandhills of Loup fork, Niobrara; abundant; sixangle spurge; Hayden 1862

Euphorbia hypericifolia Linn.; sandhills on Loup fork; most likely Missouri spurge, Euphorbia missourica; Hayden 1862

Fabaceae

Amorpha canescens Nutt.; very abundant on the upland prairies; Loup fork, and Niobrara river; leadplant; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Fagaceae

Psoralea digitata Nutt.; Sand hills on Loup fork; now palmleaf Indian breadroot, Pediomelum digitatum; Hayden 1862

Quercus macrocarpa Michx.; along the Niobrara river; bur oak; Warren or Snowden journals

Gentianaceae

Eustoma Russelianum G. Don.; around saline lakes in the sandhills of Loup fork and Niobrara; very abundant; August; showy prairie gentian; western sandhills in August; Hayden 1862

Grossulariaceae

Ribes hirtellum Michx.; in the western sandhills; gooseberry; Warren or Snowden journals

Ribes odoratum H. Wendl.; along the Loup fork in the central sandhills; buffalo currant; Warren or Snowden journals

Juglandaceae

Juglans nigra L.; in the Niobrara valley eastward of Minnechaduza creek; black walnut; Warren or Snowden journals

Juncaceae

Juncus species; at lakes in the western sandhills; rush; Warren or Snowden journals

Juncaginaceae

Brunella officinalis Linn.; along the Loup fork, July 30th; a species of broomrape; Brunella officinalis is now Prunella vulgaris or self-heal, according to Dr. Sutherland; Middle Loup river; northwest Blaine county; Hayden 1862

Lamiaceae

Monarda aristata Nutt.; Sandhills on Loup fork, August 1st; probably plains bee-balm, Monarda punctata; Middle Loup river; ca. Thomas county; Hayden 1862

Montelia tamariscina Gray; sandhills on Loup fork; water-hemp, Monarda clinopodioides; Hayden 1862

Pyenanthemum lanceolatum Pursh; Loup fork, July 31, 1857; specimen most likely Virginia mountain-mint, Pycnanthemum virginianum; Middle Loup river, ca. Thomas county; Hayden 1862

Malvaceae

Callirhoe macrohiza Gray; Loup fork, July 22nd; now pink poppy-mallow, Callirhoe alacaeoides; historic Pawnee reservation on the lower Loup river; Hayden 1862

Oleaceae

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.; along the Loup fork, in the western sandhills and along the Niobrara river; green ash; Warren or Snowden journals

Onagraceae

Oenothera rhombipetala Nutt.; Sand hills, August 4th; a primrose; Middle Loup river, Mullen vicinity; Hayden 1862

Oenothera spinulosa var. Drummondii; Loup fork of the Platte, July; a species of evening primrose that would need to be studied to determine the specific species; Hayden 1862

Papaveraceae

Argemone hispida Gray; Loup fork; rough pricklypoppy and no doubt Argemone polyanthemos according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Pinaceae

Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson; on butte along the Niobrara river valley; ponderosa pine; Warren or Snowden journals

Poaceae

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.; along the Niobrara river on October 6th, i.e., at the mouth of Leander creek; noted as a species of cane growing 15 feet high and with a very thick growth; perhaps common reed; Warren or Snowden journals

Polemoniaceae

Gilia longiflora Torr.; in sandhills of Niobrara river; showy ipoposis, Ipomopsis longiflora; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Polygonaceae

Eriogonum Jamesii Benth.; sandhills; most likely annual wild-buckwheat, Eriogonum annuum according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Polygonaceae

Rumex venosus Pursh.; Loup fork; wild begonia; Warren 1875

Portulacaceae

Talinum parviflorum Nutt.; Sand hills on Loup fork; sunbright, Phemeranthus parviflorus; Hayden 1862

Ranunculaceae

Anemone cylindrica Gray; Loup fork; candle anemone; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Pulsatilla patens D.C.; in the sand hills of Loup Fork; now pasque flower, Anemone patens; Warren 1875

Rhamnaceae

Ceanothus ovalis Bigelow, var. pubescens; sand hills of Loup Fork on the Niobrara river; new jersey tea or Ceanothus herbaceous; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Rosaceae

Prunus americana Marsh.; along the Niobrara river; wild plum; Warren or Snowden journals

Prunus pumila, Linn.; abundant in the sand hills of Loup fork; western sandcherry with Nebraska plants are variety besseyi, according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862, Warren 1875

Salicaceae

Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.; along the Loup fork and Niobrara river; plains cottonwood; Warren or Snowden journals

Salix species; along the lower Loup fork; along Niobrara river; willow and red willow; Warren or Snowden journals

Scrophulariaceae

Pentstemon acuminatus Lindl.; Sandhills on Loup fork; sharpleaf penstemon; might possibly be blowout penstemon, Penstemon haydenii S. Wats., according to Dr. Sutherland; a specimen collected is in the Gray herbarium at Harvard University and has been identified to P. haydenii (Sutherland 1988); Hayden 1862

Pentstemon Fendleri Gray; Sandhills on Loup fork; may possibly be Penstemon acuminatus, according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Petalostemum macrostachyium Torr.; Sand hills along the Loup fork and Niobrara; Petalostemon macrostachys is Dalea cylindrices; a rare but not unlikely species; the specimen would need to be seen to make certain its identification, according to Dr. Sutherland; Hayden 1862

Petalostemum villosum Nutt.; sand hills on Loup fork; now silky prairie-clover, Dalea villosa; Hayden 1862

Ulmaceae

Ulmus americana L.; along the Niobrara river; American elm; Warren or Snowden journals

Vitaceae

Vitis riparia Michx.; along the Niobrara river; riverbank grape; Warren or Snowden journals

Undetermined: Allium stellatum Nutt.; Loup Fork; likely a misdetermination as discussed by Robert Kaul in Flora of Nebraska; may be a variety of Allium canadense according to Dr. Sutherland; prairie onion or autumn onion; Warren 1875. Also: Indeterminate name; in the western sandhills; flag the noted plant type; the identification of this species cannot be determined; Warren or Snowden journals

References

Photocopies of the hand-written journals of G.K. Warren and J.H. Snowden available from federal archives.

Ferdinand V. Hayden. 1862. On the geology and natural history of the upper Missouri. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 12: 1-218.

David M. Sutherland. 1988. Historical notes on collections and taxonomy of Penstemon haydenii S. Wats. (blowout penstemon), Nebraska's only endemic plant species. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 16: 191-194.

G.K. Warren. 1875. Preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska and Dakota in the years 1855-’56-’57. Government Printing Office reprint. 125 pages.


09 March 2017

Hearing Held on Moratorium on Turbines in the Sandhills

It was country boots versus city suits during the hearing on legislative bill 504 at the Nebraska state capitol on March 1st.

The natural resources committee held a hearing on a bill introduced by senator Tom Brewer, who represents the 43rd district. The legislation would establish a two-year moratorium on development of industrial wind turbines within the sandhills, and that a study of wind turbines impacts or influences occur during this period.

Senator Brewer opened the hearing. The primary reason for the moratorium would be to have a “time-out” to “give everyone a voice and a chance to be heard.” Turbine proposals, especially in Cherry county have been obviously contentious, resulting in families divided and friend and neighbor disagreements. Tax subsidies were also mentioned as developers are rushing to build before the end of federal tax subsidies in a few years. There is a need to balance the rights of wind companies with those of land owners and other interested parties, he said.

Proponents urging that the bill be moved out of the committee for consideration by the full legislature were primarily ranchland residents, with many having a personal stake in what will happen within the sandhills if turbine facilities and associated power lines get built.

There were Cherry county ranchers from the Goose Creek country and the Brownlee vicinity. Others also drove hundreds of miles from the Thedford area. A ranchwife from north of Burwell came to express her concern about turbines and the tactics of the Nebraska Public Power District associated with the construction of the proposed R-Project industrial power line. Other concerned citizens came from Valentine, Wood Lake and Taylor, as well as a former state senator from North Platte, from a ranch dating to 1878.

These many people took time out of their schedule – during the busy calving season – to drive many miles to Lincoln because of what they and many others appreciate about the Sand Hills. It is a common consensus that the region is cattle country, not wind turbine country. A common theme was that the sandhills are a unique place that deserves special protection.

There was a comment about the region being a “national natural wonder” and a “magical and amazing place.” Ann Manning-Warren, drove from the Goose creek country of southeast Cherry county. She said “there is no other place in the world quite like the sandhills.” Her ranch, like many others, represent generations of ranch families that have conserved the grassland range and other unique land features.

Fourth generation rancher Craig Miles said the positions on wind turbine facility development was the “difference between cowboys and paid suits.” His testimony conveyed a sense of place from prominent landmark, Hackberry Point, where the view towards the North Loup River, the wind among the grass and the sound of the wild birds can be enjoyed. The “wisdom behind LB 504 is taking the high road.”

Also present was a spokesman for the Lincoln-based Wachiska chapter of the National Audubon Society, a group that has for many years worked to conserve tracts of tall-grass prairie in southeast Nebraska. Bruce Kennedy has also been involved in getting the Niobrara River designated as a national scenic river.

The Nebraska Sierra Club spokesman George Cunningham said that though the group are proponents of “sustainable alternative energy systems” there is “no need for energy developments in native grasslands.” They should be on converted land.

The massive development of wind turbine facilities in Antelope county was indicated by Dean Smith, a farmer from near Brunswick. He indicated that 50% of the county has easements that allow wind turbine placement, with about one-half of that property owners being absentee landowners. There are already 220 industrial turbines within the county, with another 168 proposed. His three primary concerns are viewscape, timely collection of taxes and wind turbine syndrome. A tactic used by developers is that once there is one turbine, why not put in others, he said.

Developers are now intent on placing industrial development on land in the vicinity of ranches cared for by multiple generations of families. Within Cherry county, there is the Kilgore project and the newly identified Cascade project that would place 147 turbines on land along the Cherry county line, north of Thedford along Highway 83.

Opponents were most notably represented by lawyers and lobbyists for wind energy development companies. The men in suits were paid to talk.

They included someone from Berkshire-Hathaway Energy, or was it BSH Renewables, the current owner and operator of the Grande Prairie turbine facility in northern Holt county. This company is looking for additional opportunities to purchase wind turbine developments. The Sand Hills is one of their top three locales for future development, lawyer Alan Butler said.

Invenergy, the developer of turbine facilities in Boone and Antelope counties, had representative Joshua Framel proclaim that their projects “maximize benefits with minimal impacts.”

A lawyer from an Omaha law firm said the legislation is “unwarranted and will dangerously chill opportunities for wind development in Nebraska.” Mike Degan also said that there is an advantage to placing turbines in the sandhills because there is “less residential development so turbines could be placed in remote areas.”

Also speaking in opposition to LB 504 was Kathy Torpy of The Nature Conservancy. This group is pro-wind and wants more turbines in Nebraska, and she asked for “thoughtful and well done placement of turbines” with a request for meetings to be held within the sandhills on this issue. She also said that “ecologically sensitive areas” need to be protected and asked – for some reason not indicated – that the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission lead the study.

The Center for Rural Affairs was also opposed to the legislative bill, since it was “focused on removal of local communities to regulate wind turbines.” Spokesman Lucas Nelsen also said that the boundary indicated with the legislative bill needs further consideration.

Bree DeNaeyer secretary of Cherry County Wind, L.L.C. also spoke, stating the need to “dispense with 504.” Her husband is a county commissioner operating a ranch on land owned by his mother, an enrolled member of the group. Her opinion was that the state legislation would conflict with local zoning regulations and impinge on private property rights. Rancher Dave Hamilton, also an enrolled member of Cherry County Wind, said wind turbines would mean economic development that would “ripple down main streets” and the bill was a “stall tactic.”

Bluestem Energy Solutions, an Omaha-based company, was well represented. They have plans – one which was rejected by the Cherry county commissioners – for a turbine facility south of Kilgore, and the Cascade project along Highway 83 at the Cherry county line, north of Thedford.

Testimony was also expressed by a wind coalition lobbyist that works to remove barriers to wind development wherever.

Other groups opposed to the bill were the Saline County Wind Association (comes down to the not in my backyard opinion), the Nebraska League of Conservation Voters (wind is a resource that needs to be taken advantage of, just like land and water), the Nebraska Chamber of Commerce and Nebraska Farmer’s Union (the bill is “heavy-handed” and anti-business, anti-property rights and anti-local control).

There were also two speakers with a neutral position. Ken Winston of Bold Alliance asked that amendments be added to the bill to address pipelines, injection wells and powerlines. A representative of the Nebraska Association of County Officials also spoke.

Everyone had a chance to present their representative testimony, with nearly every speaker limited to three minutes. Letters that had been sent in were also indicated.

Sen. Brewer indicated his view upon making comments at the end of the hearing. “This is an issue that effects many. Bring this legislation to the floor … to let the committee decide is ridiculous. Counties don’t know what will be right or what will be wrong.” He noted how some wind energy developers “put a gun to our head” as they said “give us wind or we will go elsewhere.” This threat was not acceptable to Sen. Brewer, who also said it was “wrong-headed and ridiculous to bring in turbines because there are already roads and railroad tracks.”

According to the clerk of the hearing committee, there were 23 people that testified in favor of the legislation, with 40 letters received that indicated the same view. Opponents were represented by 16 speakers, with 20 letters received.

02 March 2017

Public Testimony on Nebraska Legislative Bill 504

Presented March 1, 2017 at Lincoln, NE by James E. Ducey; Valentine, Cherry county, Nebr. Public testimony on Nebraska Legislative Bill 504. Hearing held at room 1525 at the state capitol. Author of two books on Nebraska birds, more than 425 articles on a variety of Sand Hills topics (starting in 1979), creator of the archive of the Great American Sandhills, as well as historian and photographer.

It is a rare opportunity indeed to be able to sit in this hearing room and listen to the heartfelt words of so many great Nebraskans, especially on the 150th anniversary of the date when our state was established. This hearing truly represents democracy.


The people present here today represent what is means to create a vibrant and distinctive state. This is notably represented by the many from the so special Sandhill’s that have taken time from their busy ranching schedules to drive to Lincoln to make certain their important words are heard.


Ranch communities among the dunes represents so many qualities essential to understand and carry out what has been necessary to care for the sandhill land, its flora and fauna, and as notably the people. So many sandhill people - amidst many rural settings – are descendants of strong pioneers that found and appreciated places which became their homes and property which generations have clung to so tenaciously.


Personally, I have spent 35 years researching and visiting the region, and have in particular visited more than 1000 different localities to learn about the more than 400 representative wild bird species that are known to occur during the last 125 years. Time has also been spent hiking and lingering atop the topographically highest grass-covered dunes in order to view the vast skies and endless horizons not marred by ugly towers and associated powerlines. These outings have been chances to truly experience the spirit of this prairie land.


It is essential that the sand hill’s resources and its vibrant people be given the proper consideration essential for maintaining the features that make the homes and the region so specially unique. Adding multiple towers, including cellular towers, will dramatically alter the opportunity for future generations to know and appreciate what can be so important to many right now.


Proper consideration of this land’s features, its people and yes, its spirit, can best be accomplished by enacting a moratorium on the placement of industrial wind turbines until details on many topics are better known and understood. Please pass LB 504 to help heal the community.

10 February 2017

Dozens of Geese Die at NPPD Powerline

On February 2, 2017 it became known that dozens of Snow Geese had collided with a 345 KV Nebraska Public Power District powerline near Edgar, southern Nebraska. Details were provided by Robert Harms, a biologist of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, that graciously provided details of this occurrence of wildbirds hitting a significant, industrial powerline. His comments became available via email, and he indicated that his comments could be presented to the public.

"The NPPD notified us by telephone that about 30 snow geese had collided with the 345 kV power line near Edgar, Nebraska on February 2, 2017. Apparently, the collisions occurred on February 1, 2017—the day before. I met with a NPPD biologist to inspect the site on the afternoon of February 2, 2017. The purpose of the site inspection was to determine how and why the collisions occurred and recommend modifications to the existing line (i.e., installation of bird flight diverters (BFDs)) to prevent the same situation from occurring in the future.

"A total of 95 dead snow geese and a few Ross’s geese were found under the power line in an overgrazed pasture. This likely underestimates the true number of birds that collided with NPPD’s power line. We have unconfirmed reports of injured birds that could no longer fly in the area but we did not find any during the site inspection. It’s likely that there were birds that collided with the line and could still fly, but died elsewhere. The birds laid dead under the line overnight—it’s possible that carcasses were carried off by coyotes and consumed elsewhere. All told — probably well over 100 birds died at this site due to collision with NPPD’s 345kV power line.

"An initial reaction during the site inspection was that the snow and Ross’s geese had been shot at as they fed in the cornfield, flushed, and then collided with the line. There were no signs of birds being shot—some dead birds had missing wings and heads and many had serrated stomach tissue and exposed entrails—this is not an indication of gunshots, but of collision. Additionally, I spoke with the landowner who indicated that she had heard no gunshots. I spent some time at the site to determine the circumstances that led to this large collision. The Edgar city sewage lagoon is located approximately 0.25-mile west and cornfield is located to the north. The wind was out of the northeast on February 1. In my mind, the most likely explanation is that a large flock of snow and Ross’s geese were roosting overnight on the sewage lagoon and departed early in the morning well before daylight as snow and Ross’s geese often do. As they departed, they flew into the wind (northeast) and collided with NPPD’s 345kV power line which is located about 0.25-mile east of the lagoons. The collisions likely occurred in low light conditions.

"I would characterize the area as intensive row crop irrigated agriculture with a few rainwater basin wetlands present; these are located west and north of Edgar. This general area of Nebraska experienced severe drought last fall—few rainwater basins held water then. Most of the basins are still dry—those with water have it because of an ice storm, then above normal temperatures in the area which resulted in melting and runoff with little infiltration over frozen ground about 3 weeks ago. All in all, the general area where the collision site is not the best habitat for migratory birds—it is likely that the sewage lagoon was only being used by the snow geese because it represents what little water is available at this time of year in this area given the drought situation.

"After discussion at the site, NPPD tentatively agreed to install bird flight diverters (BFD) on an approximately 1-mile long segment of the existing 345 kV line to minimize the risk of avian collisions in the future. This includes the segment of the power line that crosses immediately north of the sewage lagoon area. NPPD also agreed to install BFDs on a privately-owned rainwater basin wetland located approximately two miles west of Edgar."

Edgar is located in Clay county, Nebraska. The sewage lagoon is northeast of the town.

the industrial powerline where these geese died, is similar in features for the proposed powerline known was the R-Project, which is being proposed by NPPD across a vast swath of the sandhills.