22 December 2012

Candid Story by Daniel Boone at Omaha

I had always read about the hunting grounds of the West with interest, and here I was as far West as Omaha, and with a couple of guns and ammunition suitable for the destruction of anything from a Bob White to a buffalo. I went to a hotel with my baggage and asked to be shown to a room. When I went up I was decently attired "commercial traveler," but when I came down with one of my guns I was a "knight of the plains," a "deer slayer," a "r-r-red handed ranger of the plains." I was characteristically attired in a pair of grass colored pantaloons with a row of fringe and eagle feathers down the outside; a pair of moccasins made by an "Indian" and his son, of your city; a coat with sporting topics stamped on the buttons of the same color, and a cap to march; then I had some revolvers, a hatchet, a knife and some cartridges in a belt buckled around my waist. I also had a waterproof box in my pocket containing money, matches and salt. I was going out on the Union Pacific Railway for geese. My appearance at the depot caused the most profound commotion, for, although it may be no new thing for the Omahawsers to see men going out from among them armed to their teeth, and with a resolute mein, bespeaking that they are prepared to protect themselves "to the last extremity." I still fancy that, without meaning to be partial to myself, they seldom saw among them a hunter with everything about him so entirely fresh and modern. It was perhaps with some such thought as this that I asked a policeman how long it would be till train time, and if there was a photographer handy. He said there wasn't, and then he looked at something on my coat and told a man if he'd tell him what that was he could have it. I looked there to brush it off, whatever it was but I couldn't see anything. There was a man on the train who was a hunter also. His name was Tucker; the other man's name was Penny. They were going after geese too. They asked me if I could shoot geese — if I had ever shot geese before. I said no, but I could soon get into the hang of it; I was a regular stunner on glass balls and hitting oyster cans. he said he wasn't very good on geese himself, and I said what he wanted was nerve. He oughtn't get excited. He was too much afraid he'd miss. Then he commenced telling the other men about, if a fellow had a pug nose he was always sure to be a "smart Alex," and then I went and sat in another seat. There is no use in a man getting mad at a fellow, even if his nose is inclined in the right direction, just because he can shoot geese better than he can himself.

The first evening I was out after geese I didn't shoot any, owing to the altitude of the geese. The next day, as I was to leave the next morning, I was a little hurried and didn't do as well as I mostly do when I'm after geese. I only brought home eight. They are thirty-five cents apiece out West. That's all.

Daniel Boone, Jr. December 30, 1880. A candid story. Forest and Stream 15(22): 430.

19 December 2012

Wild Pigeon Shooting Tournament at Niagara

This article is distinctive in the rational given for using wild pigeons as targets for gunners. There were 2000 birds to be acquired for the event.

The Pigeon Shooting Tournament

We have been advised by the President of the Niagara Falls Shooting Club that said club will hold a pigeon shooting tournament at Niagara Falls on the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th of September, with money prizes of value from $2,000 to $5,000, classed in each shoot as one, two, three, four and five moneys — ties of ten shot off for first, and so on through; then a grand "free for all," say $2,000 in money, in the same way. Birds are ordered, coops are building, and committees are appointed on railroad reduction of rates, and all are vigorously preparing for the event. The International Hotel will reduce their rate one dollar, making it $3.50 per day. Carriages and all other charges in an about the place will be materially reduced to rates that cannot fail but be satisfactory to all. By resolution, all the members are appointed a reception committee.

Under the auspices of the strong and very energetic club, the tournament cannot fail of complete success. Emulous of rival organizations throughout the State, it is determined not to be outdone at Syracuse, Oswego, or Watertown, and we have no doubt that more pigeons will be shot, better scores be made, bigger prizes be won, more money be spent, a larger assembly be present, and a better time generally be had, than at any other similar meeting hitherto held, or to come for the next half century. Certainly the incidental surroundings of Niagara Falls are sufficient in themselves to make the tournament attractive. One thing, however, we do regret, and that is, that this meeting of the National Convention as the first day of the shoot. No side show of this kind is necessary to tempt the attendance of gentlemen who propose to meet for the sole object of devising the best method to protect and preserve our game. Not one serious, earnest delegate the more will be present in consequence of the tournament. The club might just as well, and with greater propriety, have postponed its festivities until the following day, without in the least degree jeopardizing its mechanical harmony or its prospects of success. We shall always oppose the mixing of business with pleasure and the association of holiday pastimes with the proceedings of a deliberative body. We regard the action of the Niagara Falls club in bringing these two widely diverse and divergent objects into juxtaposition as impolitic in the extreme. Its direct tendency, as we know from conversation with gentlemen that might be named, is to alienate those persons whose intelligent cooperation and knowledge of the subject are most valuable, and really indispensable. There is not the slightest kinship or harmony between the destruction of pigeons at a trap and the legislating for the protection and propagation of game. We make no objection to the pastime of pigeon shooting, though not enthusiastic in that line of sport. We hope for the Niagara Falls tournament every possible success; but we wish the localities of the Convention and the Tournament were was wide apart and remote as their objects are divergent.

That the objects of the Convention have received the consideration of sportsmen at large, and that the call has a widespread approval, we doubt not. This is manifested in the haste of at least one Western State to respond, namely, Ohio. This state has appointed a delegation for the September meeting composed of Colonel C.W. Wooley, of Cincinnati, Hon. A.T. Brinsninde, of Cleveland, C.P. Brigham, of Toledo, Harvey H. Brown, of Cleveland, and C.A. Logan, of Cincinnati, each delegate being empowered to elect a sub-delegation of five.

We trust that other states will be as fully and as ably represented. It is important that the Convention should be full, for this can scarcely be regarded as anything else than a preliminary meeting to devise some basis for future action, and some general ground plan upon which to construct that legislative contrivance, so much desired, which shall essentially remedy the evils and objections that now attach to existing game laws. It is equally important, too, that the Convention should adjourn to a day sufficiently distant to ensure a full consideration of the subject and the receipt of such schemes as wisdom or ingenuity may suggest and present.

August 13, 1874. Forest and Stream 3(1): 8.

The Pigeon Shooting Tournament at Niagara

No doubt the roar of the great cataract at Niagara will drown the popping of the pigeon-shooters' guns next September 9th, so that the noise thereof will not disturb the deliberations of the Convention that meets to secure the protection of game. We hope it may. We trust also that the session of the delegates will in no way annoy the pigeon-shooters or distract their nerves. We look for good scores this day fortnight, when the air is cool, and all the conditions of season, climate and locality are favorable thereto. Bad marksmanship brings no satisfactory return. In pigeon practice, the death of each bird ought to bring some compensating benefit to the contestants, either in rewards of merit, the pleasure of honorable emulation, or in improved accuracy. We never could bring ourselves to believe that pigeons were created for the express purpose of being shot from the trap, although they seem in this way to serve men best. They are of very little account in pot pie; while, living, they break down forests and defile the face of nature in the vicinity of their roosts. So long as it is more important that our citizens should become expert in the use of arms than that the lives of thousands of pigeons should be saved, so long shall we defend the practice of trap-shooting. It secures quickness of trigger, accuracy of aim, confidence in the field, readiness for emergency, and renders our people the worthy descendants of ancestors whose training amid wilderness experiences and hand to hand encounters with wild beasts enabled them to conquer a country and win an independence. It was in such a school as this that our forefathers were tried; in this they learned the art of arms. Pigeon shooting we regard as essential to the defence of our country through the education of our citizens to be marksmen, and until some contrivance shall be invented or discovered which shall serve equally well in the manual of instruction, we must be content to permit and endure trap-shooting, repugnant as it may be to our finer natures.

Through numerous letters from members of the Niagara Shooting Club, we learn that the preparations for entertaining their guests on a grand scale are progressing most satisfactorily, and we doubt not that the tournament will be one of the most "recherche" (is the word proper?) of any similar festival yet held in this country. The Club is one of the oldest we have, and one of the most influential. Possibly all its members are thoroughbred sportsmen and earnest conservators of game, who rejoin at the prospect that some good may accrue from the deliberations of those who meet to improve the game laws, and will in every way aid and abet their action; nevertheless, as we have already said, we should prefer that the Tournament had been called on some other day than that selected by the Convention.

Anonymous. Pigeon shooting tournament. August 27, 1874. Forest and Stream 3(3): 41.

17 December 2012

Wild Pigeon Shooting in the Alleghanies

By P.L.W.
Deer Park, Md., September 18, 1874.
Editor Forest and Stream:—

I have often seen in the Forest and Stream descriptions of duck, snipe, woodcock, trap, pigeon, &c., shooting, but I do not recollect reading any article on wild pigeon shooting in the country. I think that they are worth mentioning, for they afford a great deal of sport when they are frightened. It is true that they generally fly in flocks of ten or twenty, and therefore they give you more to shoot at than some other birds; but when they get scared, then you will find that you have "greased lightning to aim at." I think that I had more fun (it could not be called sport) at a pigeon roost last September than on any other gunning excursion.

About eight miles from home the pigeons had formed a roost, as it is called, a place where they came in immense numbers to pass the night. Five or six of us, hearing very glowing accounts of the number of birds that were being killed, resolved to spend a night there. So one fine afternoon, about four o'clock, we started out "seeking what we might devour." We soon reached the edge of the roost, but as it was too early for the birds, we built a fire and ate our suppers, and "laid around loose" until sunset; then we started out, reaching the ground as the birds began to settle on the trees and bushes. Our forests here are composed almost entirely of oaks of various kinds, the white, red, black, yellow, chestnut, pin and jack oaks being the principal varieties; the latter (jack oaks) form the underbrush in most places, and are the favorites with the pigeons, who crowd so thickly upon them that the smaller branches were many of them broken off. As soon as it was fairly dark we got to work. We had brought three laborers with us to carry lanterns, and they now became of use. All who had guns advanced together on the front, and kept moving on until we thought there was a sufficient quantity of "noise." We would then fire in the direction from whence it came. The men with lights would then search for the killed and wounded. The first shot we killed 65 birds, or at least found that number, for two farmers came with a wagon next morning and found nearly a load of dead and wounded pigeons lying on the ground. Of course I don't mean in this particular spot, but all over the roost. About midnight we separated into two parties and went in opposite directions.

About three o'clock we found we had all the birds we could carry, so we returned to camp and slept until morning dawned upon us in the shape of a fine misty rain. The pigeons were put in ordinary grain sacks, and when they were counted we had seventy birds apiece. This is somewhat barbarous sport, but very exciting, the birds flying all around you, men swearing as they fall into the numerous holes, or run into thorn bushes, and the ever present idea that some one is about to put a load of shot into you make it quite lively.

The birds are coming in in great numbers, and from the present lookout we shall have good sport this Fall.

If any one of your readers wishes to try this kind of shooting I would be happy to furnish him any information in regard to it that he may wish.

The town (Deer Park) is on the main stem of the B. and O. R.R., 220 miles from Baltimore.

October 8, 1874. Pigeon Shooting in the Alleghanies. Forest and Stream 3(9): 140.

Maryland — Deer Park, Sept. 30. — I have never seen birds as thick as the wild pigeons are this fall. I have been out every day this week, and have been very successful. On Monday evening in an hour and a half I got nineteen; Tuesday, fourteen, Wednesday, twenty-two, Thursday, twenty-four, Friday, thirty-three, Saturday, thirty-nine, in all one hundred and fifty-one, and an average of twenty-five. I killed these birds all from one point of woods, that runs out into an open glade. They were flying to the main roosts, which is about our half-way house. With the exception of fifteen, these were shot on the wing, from small flocks of five or ten. I could have killed a larger number had I shot at birds in trees, for the oak timber all around me was loaded with them while they were feeding on acorns. Once I did shoot a single barrel at a tree full, and the result was fifteen birds. I killed so many that I have refused all invitations to go to the roost, but others have taken my place, for we can barely get enough sleep on account of the number of gunners. ...

[From portion of Shot Gun and Rifle column in same issue, as submitted by same contributor.]

Maryland — Deer Park, Oct. 12. — Pigeons are still plentiful some six or eight miles from here, but are secure near town, although they fly over in the morning and evening to and from the feeding grounds.

On Wednesday [October 7th] I bagged sixty-two in about two hours. Immense numbers of birds have been killed, and quite a number of gentlemen have been here from Baltimore, Cumberland, and two (the best shots and keenest sportsmen) from Bedford Springs, Va. Some of these gentlemen have not been successful, for they came too late for the shooting near town, and had not time to go any distance. Two or three men, whose names I don't know, have been netting pigeons for the past two or three weeks, and you may judge of their luck from the fact that they shipped 300 dozens of birds in the first two weeks of their being here. I do not know whether this is against the laws of Maryland, but it is against those of fairness and humanity.

This wholesale slaughter has aroused the indignation of all the neighboring sportsmen, and I have heard several say that they had been hunting for the nets without success, intending to destroy them if they were found. Grouse are quite plentiful and bring a good price (forty cents apiece). A few quail, and occasionally a wild turkey may be seen for sale. I shall go about ten miles into the country this week for a couple of days grouse and pigeon shooting, and will inform you of my luck.

W. October 15, 1874. Forest and Stream 3(10): 149-150.

[The wild pigeons had departed from this area by the latter part of mid-October.]

12 December 2012

Game Market Prices Convey Bird History

Throughout centuries of among urban North America, residents regularly went to a town or city market to purchase something edible for the day's main meal. There were many offering during the different season of so many years. There were pigeons, snipe, ducks, prairie hens, quail and partridge offered by the merchants. Such a shopping trip was nothing unusual as game animals taken in the wild spaces were regularly hauled elsewhere and available for purchase among the stalls of the market.

Associated details of retail or wholesale prices within pages of local newspapers or specialty publications provide an evocative perspective, available nearly weekly in some cities of the eastern states.

New York City had an especially lively market, with some of the first particulars from 1763 and 1800. More expansive specifics start in the mid-1850s, especially in 1853. Details of special importance were given by a regular column titled "Family Marketing" that presented retail costs, with another feature in the local paper being a weekly summary of the wholesale prices. Though these were typically exclusive, they provide a distinct dichotomy when both were available, such as in 1857.

Accurate details were regularly reported for this east coast city, as especially known for the 1850s-1860s. It is, however, only one example of the myriad pertinent sources. There were other city markets of with specifics about the prevalent cost of purchasing a particular number of various sorts of birds. As the frontier moved west, transportation routes expanded, local and regional commerce was underway, and with particular specifics of reporting, the market prices for various commodities were expressed in vivid detail.

Thousands of records of particular interest were issued for New York City, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Memphis, San Francisco, Milwaukee, and during the last few years of this period, at St. Louis and Omaha. Other urban places might also have similar price details, such as the cost of a dozen wild pigeons or wild squabs, the price of a pair of different types of ducks or prairie hens, or how much is cost for a wild goose or swan, or for a dozen sand snipe.

There were particulars given, though the actual identity that conforms to the actual indications can be rather vague. Known records are available for the 1850s through 1870s, and into the 1880s.

More than species or bird types can be identified to some extent or another. The following is a preliminary indication, based upon more than 7000 records:

¶ Greater Prairie Chicken: 892 records (as of the afternoon of 12 December 2012); prairie chickens, prairie hens, and in some cases grouse, which, thought a name attribution might seem to be different, apparently conform to this species
¶ Mallard: 665; usually listed to this particular bird name, but sometimes the wild duck
¶ Northern Bobwhite: 606; usually quail, but sometimes partridge
¶ Passenger Pigeon: 557; wild pigeons, flight pigeons
¶ Ruffed Grouse: 368; partridge
¶ Teal: 360
¶ Duck: 344; including small ducks, common ducks, mixed ducks
¶ Rock Dove: 276; mostly in reference to generic pigeons, or tame squabs
¶ American Woodcock: 208; woodcock
¶ Canvasback: 202; canvas-backs, canvass-backs; distinct as sold by men in the market because of its unique and appreciated culinary distinction
¶ American Black Duck: 192
¶ Snipe: 182; snipe was a generic term commonly used to refer to a variety of different species
¶ Redhead: 171
¶ Wild Turkey: 171
¶ Wilson's Snipe: 151; English or jack snipe
¶ Plover: 137
¶ Canada Goose: 136; wild goose
¶ Scaup: 126; broad-bills
¶ Wood Duck: 124
¶ American Wigeon: 116; the widgeon
¶ Sandpiper: 116; sand snipe or surf snipe
¶ Dowitcher: 95
¶ Brant Goose: 71; brant
¶ Goose: 66
¶ Gadwall: 65; grey duck
¶ Yellowlegs: 63
¶ American Robin: 59; robin or occasionally misspelled as robbins
¶ Bobolink: 58; reed or rice birds
¶ Sharp-tailed Grouse: 50
¶ Snow Goose: 47
¶ Curlew: 41; curlew snipe
¶ Red Knot: 31; robin snipe
¶ Greater Yellowlegs: 26; large yellowlegs
¶ Semipalmated Sandpiper: 25
¶ Grouse: 22
¶ Golden/Grey Plover: 19; black-breasted snipe
¶ Lesser Yellowlegs: 19; small yellowlegs
¶ Blackbird: 18
¶ Godwit: 16
¶ Quail: 14; used to designate quail in an area where several species occurred in the nearby wilds
¶ Lark: 12
¶ Charadrius plover: 11; belted plover
¶ Dove: 11
¶ Common Pheasant: 10; English pheasant as brought over from Europe, as there was international trade in this commodity
¶ Northern Pintail: 10; spring-tail
¶ Shorebird: 10
¶ Tundra Swan: 10; swan sold at the NYC market
¶ Greater White-fronted Goose: 7
¶ Sora: 7
¶ Unidentified birds: 7
¶ Bufflehead: 6
¶ Blue-winged Teal: 5; when specifically referred to a blue-wing
¶ Clapper Rail: 5
¶ American Golden Plover: 4; green plover
¶ Pectoral Sandpiper: 4
¶ Upland Sandpiper: 4
¶ Cedar Waxwing: 3; cedar birds
¶ Pigeon: 3
¶ Willow Ptarmigan: 3; scotch grouse
¶ Green-winged Teal: 2
¶ Merganser: 2; sheld-drakes or shell-drakes
¶ American Avocet: 1
¶ American Coot: 1
¶ Blue Jay: 1
¶ California Quail: 1; mentioned from the west coast in the early 1860s
¶ Cinnamon Teal: 1; mentioned from the west coast in the early 1860s
¶ Cormorant: 1
¶ Dark-eyed Junco: 1; small blue snow bird
¶ Emperor Goose: 1
¶ Gambel's Quail: 1
¶ Goldeneye: 1
¶ Great Blue Heron: 1; blue heron
¶ Great Egret: 1; white heron
¶ Grebe: 1; hell-diver
¶ Grey Plover: 1
¶ Guillemot: 1
¶ Killdeer: 1
¶ Long-tailed Duck: 1
¶ Loon: 1
¶ Meadowlark: 1
¶ Mountain Quail: 1
¶ Mourning Dove: 1
¶ Northern Flicker: 1; clape
¶ Northern Shoveler: 1
¶ Sandhill Crane: 1
¶ Shearwater: 1
¶ Swan: 1
¶ Unidentified species: 1
¶ Whooping Crane: 1; white crane, Illinois
¶ Willet: 1
¶ Woodpecker: 1

Problematic are attributions indicated as brant. An easy "out" was taken to refer to this designation as referring to the Brant Goose, though other species could have certainly been among the birds denoted. Also, it was perplexing while making decisions about the sorts of birds in the market, whether a slight difference in wordage referred to a tame or wild pigeon. Sand snipe undoubtedly referred to different species, as did plover, dowitcher and other similar sorts of shorebirds. Some species were determined by comparing the given names to different sources of the era which identified birds and the names by which they were known.

Most essential has been the aggregation of so-many individual records that an overall comparison is possible. Details can be evaluated in several ways, including:

  • species identified, based upon the many pages of newspapers evaluated;
  • number of records for each particular sort of bird;
  • occasional details about the condition and availability of birds;
  • particulars to compare the numbers sold during a particular year, as especially available for Chicago; and
  • seasonal occurrence of regularly noted species, and how pertinent laws would alter the months when different game birds could be legally sold, as the legal statutes changed through the period.

Ancillary information, especially for New York City, also provides a sense of the many markets, their history, noting the eleven markets present in 1827. There are even details about Delmonico's, a prominent restaurant where gourmands gathered to feast on seasonably available game.

These thousands of records are distinctive and certainly essential for any effort to comprehensively consider another fascinating subject regarding birds during 1850- 1885. Further record gathering is still underway and to hopefully mean a discovery of additional facts of fascination for any aficionado of historic ornithology.

07 December 2012

Efforts Determined to Conserve Green-space at Platte Confluence

Further steps will occur to conserve a vitally important green-space on the north side of the Platte River at its confluence with the Missouri River.

"Issue no. 1" is to find a means to purchase property at the site from at two primary land-owners, Arcadian Fertilizer L.P. (a.k.a. PCS Nitrogen) and the Metropolitan Utilities District. Overall, the area spreads across more than 600 acres, southeast of LaPlatte along the Platte River side of a floodwater levee, eastward of the natural bluff and tree-line where there is a relict of a former oxbow, and south of LaPlatte Road and the under construction Highway 34 road alignment.

To help with this goal, a depiction of the site will be prepared — according to a verbal commitment — to suggest what amenities of other features which might occur at the site once it became public property.

In January, a "phase 1" report will be presented to the Back-to-the-River group, by the Bug Muddy Workshop, which this group focused on the Missouri River, hired in this regard. This document, according to two representatives, will be shared with attendees present at a Thursday afternoon, in the board room of the Papio-Missouri Natural Resources District.

It was a unique confluence of stake-holders. There was candid conversation by more than 30 people gathered to discuss the future of some land at the river confluence. The meeting which resulted from a personal request, was a lively discussion of issues of concern.

Attendees included several people from the Army Corps of Engineers, the Back to the River organization, the City of Bellevue including planning staff, three men from the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, an executive director of the Nebraska Environmental Trust, men interested in fish from the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Olsson Associates, staff of the Papio-Missouri NRD, a lawyer for PCS Nitrogen, PYRA Engineering since they are working on the levee situation, Sarpy County, United States Department of Agriculture and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a couple of individuals interested in the place, and a representative from office of Senator Benjamin Nelson./P>

Attendees at meeting to discuss conservation of green-space at the Platte River confluence.

It was a meeting essential to determine the situation at the site and what it will look like years from now.

The meeting was hosted by the NRD at their office at Wehrspan Lake and they deserve accolades for making it happen.

Primary topics discussed, based upon an agenda issued before the meeting via email, were:

  1. potential levee setback, its reasons and rationale, and how it might influence down-river navigation on the Missouri River;
  2. site contamination issues, which comprised a large portion of the meeting's discussion;
  3. reasons and rationale for conserving the confluence area as a public resource because of its aesthetic, cultural, historic and wildlife significance now, and into the future.

It was certainly a pointed discussion, and once the opportunity to talk spread among the entire group, it was even livelier. Considering the number 1 issue expressed by a single man, it was somewhat obvious that a large majority, if not each person in the room, agreed upon the importance of conserving the green space at this place, based upon the confines denoted upon a map image shown upon the east wall of the room.

The meeting was about details. For the Army Corps of Engineers, any acquisition of the site is not a priority, due concerns agency staff have previously indicated.

It then became apparent that any effort to acquire the property should depend upon other sources, according to a common consensus. There are a number of optional opportunities, but any actual efforts are not known.

Based upon the overall consensus, there is a some hope that the setting will continue to be a space which the public could enjoy soon ... or at least during future years of bird-watching or other outdoor endeavors.

Nearby this site, the NRD has requested funds from the Nebraska Environmental Trust to buy properties at the former Iske Place, and convert the wooded area along the river into a green-space. The land was inundated during the Flood of 2011, and a common theme of discussion was about how the current owner would indicate a value for land subject to massive flooding.

06 December 2012

Natural Values Linger at Relict Creek in Omaha

A bit of a creek still steadily flowing within the confines of urban Omaha has gotten little or no respect from the owners of property where it occurs.

The short length of waterway is one of the last, few places within the city environs where a naturalistic creek flows among a woodland setting. This particular creek is now, in the modern-era, mostly within the Westlawn-Hillcrest Memorial Park, or cemetery.

Immense changes are pending. The City of Omaha has finalized plans to alter the setting in conjunction with efforts to address sewer- and storm-water runoff. Their proposal includes particular changes at this unnamed tributary of the former Saddle Creek, into which this tributary flowed. Basics of the plan propose building two berm across the creek to divert storm-water into basins that will be built on the lowland terraces upon the creek's east side. The basins will hold the runoff for slow release into the drainage basin to revise the current situation where there is a combined sewer-storm water situation during times when there is a lot of runoff, resulting from precipitation events.

Detention ponds plan for the creek on the east side of Westlawn-Hillcrest Memorial Park. Image courtesy of the Public Works department, City of Omaha.

City officials have requested supportive funding for the wetland basin portion of the project from the Nebraska Environmental Trust.

Because the effort would include placing fill upon a Nebraska wetland feature, a permit is required from the Corps of Engineers. This permit has not yet been issued.

Several attempts to learn the details associated with the permit application have not been successful. City of Omaha officials will not provide any information, indicating that they would only provide specifics once a permit was issued. A Corps of Engineers official said specifics might only be provided following a Freedom of Information Act request.

The application is from a public entity, to another public entity, yet neither of them will divulge details. At another recent meeting a City of Omaha official, well aware of the situation indicated that a conversation could occur about this, yet a week later, there nothing more said, via phone, and more particularly, email.

Creek Historics

A creek among rolling prairie amidst the hills westward of the Missouri River was denoted by government-hired land surveyors in the 1850s. This creek, historically, was indicated in the survey notes as being within sections 30 and 31, Township 15 North, Range 13 East. There is a map which shows it place among the land features.

Notes by the surveyors indicate a hollow with ponds along the boundary of section 30 and 31, with its course to the northwest. While along the line between section 30 and 31, an unnamed stream was denoted. Specific species of trees within the local area were oak, walnut, ash, elm and hickory. It was generally described as consisting of "high, rolling prairie lands with some groves of oak and other trees interspersed." There was a plowed field present along the east side of the denoted creek alignment.

The government land-office survey was done during June 1856.

Among the details expressed by the government workers, was a mention in the surveyor's field book of "saddle creek" and the hand-written details indicating its particular, measured width.

View of the creek on the east side of the memorial park. December 2, 2012.

West Omaha

As the City of Omaha expanded westward from the bluffs near the Missouri River, the nature of the setting underwent dramatic changes.

The nearby historic Westlawn rail-transit station was a name taken for a nearby large cemetery. The West Lawn Cemetery had it first burials in 1910, according to historic details. The place was an expanse of many acres, originally mapped amidst west Omaha, prominent southward of Saddle Creek, and then south of Center Street. There is also the Bohemian Cemetery, with its open space.

Saddle Creek became the name for a primary street thoroughfare, as this waterway was buried beneath concrete and other urban constructions which continually and dramatically diminished and nearly completely obliterated any natural features of the landscape.

Area of woodlands were storm-water catchment basins will be constructed. December 2, 2012.

Another area of woodlands were storm-water catchment basins will be constructed, and just southward of the adjacent picture.

This situation was ongoing during each and every subsequent decade. The unnamed creek, which was once among hills covered with prairie grass during historic times, has become a dumping ground.

Dirt from burials has been placed continually for many decades, upon its west bank, with thousands of cubic yards present. Along the creek, there are piles of tree trunks and branches, as well as some head-stones from burials caught among the debris. There are many discarded vehicle tires upon the creek banks. At another spot, a jacuzzi lies upside down and forgotten, now nothing but a big bit of worthlessness. Leaves are dumped into the channel at its southern extent. Other rubble is present along the creek and its adjoining woods which goes from an outlet at its south end, and after its short distance among the environment, goes back into an underground inlet on the north end near Center Street, where Saddle Creek once flowed.

As this creek still lingers within its historic confines, there is suitably wild habitat for various sorts of wild birds. Especially appreciated there lately have been wrens.

In late November there was a Carolina Wren vividly seen, and surprisingly a few minutes after a comment was made that the setting seemed proper for this species. Another sort of wren might have been about, but an accomplice had no interest in looking.

Early in December — due to a particular effort of individual discovery — a Winter Wren was heard, because this setting of water and woodland is the place which this feathered mite prefers. It was seen on a Sunday morning, during an outing to particularly denote the birdlife along the flowing creek, which is especially important because its flow of water attracts birds, that congregate and especially bathe on warm days during the winter months.

Into the Future

This creek-scape creek deserves conservation attention and consideration. The disposal of dumped dirt — for decades — along its edges is detrimental, and with any sort of slump, would completely bury the creek. The trash and tires, along with other assorted discards should be dealt with, through a community effort. Fallen trees are prevalent in the hollow, and though not artificial, need to be dealt with in a limited manner to avoid further degradation of creek channel.

This creek, apparently first known during 1856, deserves care and rehabilitation. The historic setting of trees and water — which was once a place of prairie grass and fresh water — can be appreciated rather than treated with apparent disregard.

Leaves dumped into the creek by property owners east of the memorial park.

05 December 2012

Iowans Encroach on Nebraska Property at Carter Lake

Property owners in Iowa have encroached upon Nebraska land along the shore of Carter Lake.

The extent of Nebraska includes a portion of the shoreline which abuts the City of Carter Lake, where adjacent property owners have built features on property which is not within the state of Iowa, as indicated by maps provided by county assessors for Douglas County, Nebraska and Pottawattamie County, Iowa.

For much of the extent of Carter Lake, a Missouri River oxbow lake created during a big flood of 1877, the state-line is within the water area of the lake, but in its eastern extent, there is a fringe of land on the west side of the lake area which is within Nebraska, based upon details as indicated by maps available at the websites of the county assessors for Douglas County, Nebraska and Pottawattamie County, Iowa.

There are two particular, known instances where City of Carter Lake property owners have encroached upon the lake shore, onto property which they do not own, based upon parcel ownership indicated by the Douglas County assessor.

At one site, two docks were built and a wall constructed along the edge of the lake, to the west of the big pier in Levi Carter Park. A bit of a distance to the south, another extensive project using lots of rock rip-rap was dumped to stabilize the bank and create a private expanse of lawn. Further southward, an eastern fringe of the Iowa West Ranch, is also indicated as being Nebraska land.

East Carter Lake Iowa, showing property parcels and the county line.

Southeast Levi Carter Park, showing the Douglas county parcel boundary, and the Nebraska state line.

These encroachments occurred years ago...

There is a lengthy extent of the lake-side which is apparently public property, owned by the City of Omaha, according to details conveyed by the Douglas County assessor GIS-map available online. The space is indicated as being a part of Levi Carter Park.

Property ownership has obviously not been considered, based upon land-owner action and related actions, or inaction from another perspective.

A boundary between Nebraska and Iowa based upon the twists and turns of the Missouri River have been distinctive in many places along the rivers way. The situation at Carter Lake is another example of encroachment and ignorance.

The City of Omaha should establish ownership of this lake-side property, for many reasons. One essential rationale is that private constructs should not be allowed on public property. Also, public ownership would be useful for protecting the area as green space along the lake.

Private docks on City of Omaha property at Carter Lake. The docks and wall should be removed and the site restored and reconnected to the lake waters.

01 December 2012

Adams Park and Stormwater Planning Meeting

Changes are coming to Adams Park and the local neighborhood, as presented by Omaha officials and hired consultants at a public meeting on November 29th.

A "final" version of master plan for Adams Park was presented. It has a stated goal to "look for unique programming and amenities" to make the park "a valuable asset to the community" and a "catalyst for neighborhood revitalization and development."

Concerns now are that much of the park is "hidden" since it is not visible from the street, and that since parts of the park were not "accessible by walking paths," they were not used.

Key potential components mentioned include:

  • expanding the park east to 30th street at its northeast corner, and south to Maple Street on its southern extent;
  • construction of interior roads;
  • widening of Creighton Boulevard;
  • construction of an urban farming and community gardening center;
  • constructing ten picnic pavilions; and
  • adding a "whole series" of walking paths, that would have an overall length of 4.25 miles within the 60-acre park.

Additional changes are indicated in the master plan graphic, originally prepared a year ago.

There were differences between the plan as prepared by the Parks department, and a revised storm-water wetland plan as proposed for the CSO! project, as both were explained at the meeting. Another example, a proposed site for a picnic-pavilion would be within the storm-water wetland.

Two other proposals for Adams Park are also available and referenced during the question and answer period following presentations by project officials. Each proposal is different, which raised questions by attendees.

A plan presented at a design review meeting "is very conceptual at this point," according to a planner with the Omaha Parks Recreation and Public Property. Further meetings would be held on the park plan as the "master plan" is further evaluated in the future, the planner said.

CSO! Project

The current CSO! proposal was the most recent indication of plans for the western portion of the park, and was the primary local topic, other than a general overview of the ongoing effort to separate sewer and storm-water in eastern Omaha.

Significant changes in the park, include:

1) Removal of the Gabrielle Union Pond, and replacing it with an area of turf-grass and where there was no indication of a replacement for the "landmark" built in 2000 in honor the Omaha-born actress;
2) Construction of basins to hold storm-water runoff, which will have four zones: water, wetland, wet meadow and lowland. The basins will start at the south end of the park, and extend across its western portion to where it will be deepest in the its northwest corner, where the ball-field is currently. The sole source of water will be storm-water runoff, as there are no plans to provide supplemental water, according to CSO! engineers.
3) Construction of "straight" 36th street, across the west edge of the park, along the power-line corridor. A previous proposal indicated a "curved" alignment.

Proposed storm-water wetland at the western section of Adams Park. Image courtesy of Omaha Public Works.

Few details on the physical characteristics of the wetlands were given — i.e., expected water depth or basin size — with the focus on how the site will be a "community amenity." A depiction was available to convey a view of the potential, idealized setting, with its "sunny" perspective.

Depiction of storm-water wetland setting at the western section of Adams Park.

Nothing was said regarding how the Gabrielle Union Pond, which is now a prominent feature in the park-scape, will continue. The proposed plan indicates the site will become a field of turf.

The CSO! project in this area, other than the storm-water basins in the park, will primarily involve a newly constructed pipe conveyance system to carry water from the basin into the park, and then further northward. Two large map-graphics of the area and proposed constructs overlain on aerial photography of the neighborhood, were available for review, indicating its massive extent.

After the public discourse, additional commentary occurred. There was a positive response to views. However, there was little interest shown in including other measures such as bioretention gardens, including potentially at Franklin Elementary School and Erskine Park or private property which is currently vacant. Project engineers also seemed indifferent to potential options to reduce runoff by removing unused areas of concrete at Erskine Park, or efforts to converse woodland tracts in the vicinity which are helpful in allowing water to infiltrate into the soil, rather than being runoff.

The meeting was an opportunity for public comment both in a group and one-on-one manner. Towards the end of the evening city officials did, personally, shorten a conversation by indicating that comments should be submitted in writing, rather than being discussed at the time.

The John Creighton Boulevard and Miami Sewer Separation Project is currently at a 30% stage of planning. An update meeting on the area CSO! project is expected in mid- to late-2013.

About 20 people and a similar number of officials were present at the meeting held at the Malcom X Center, north of Adams Park. It was scheduled for 6:30 to 7:30 P.M., but lasted at least an additional 30 minutes.

25 November 2012

Saga of Errant Arctic Owls in Nebraska

A young owl only months old arrived at the Omaha riverfront and set off a
distinctive response of attention and care.

Snowy Owl at the CenturyLink Center Omaha, November 16th. Picture courtesy of Al Reyer.

The sojourn of this bird — born and raised in the northern wilds — brought it southward to along the Missouri River where it was observed by a someone interested in birds who was participating in a dog show.

A note was quickly posted online, with an immediate response on Friday, November 16th. Other birders soon arrived at the scene, with federal government employees appreciating their closer look through a birder's spotting scope at the obvious owl perched indifferently on the east side of the CenturyLink Center Omaha.

It was said to be a first-year female, according to birder's comments. Details were particular to the extent that the owl was seen regurgitating a pellet. This was interpreted as an indication it was doing okay, since it had been finding suitable prey.

The haps and mishaps of this bird were enough to provide details sufficient for local media to report, as personally indicated Saturday evening.

There were no other observations during the weekend, though the white owl was obviously still present on the north side of downtown.

Media reports started with the a.m. Monday newspaper, which gave the requisite details of the Friday occurrence, with a courtesy photograph.

Reporting continued, especially once this owl was put under a box in the parking lot at the hotel across the street to the west of the building where it was first sighted. This happened Monday, after the owl had been seen trying to traverse the perils of downtown — including urban streets and hurried traffic — within the downtown of the city.

What followed was a unique mix of events that caught the attention of many Omaha residents, through local media. Print articles appeared again, both on Tuesday and Wednesday. Two television stations provided reportage.

By midweek, the occurrence of this owl, and another which was injured elsewhere in Nebraska after being hit by a garbage truck, were also reported by a Lincoln newspaper.

The east Omaha owl was especially renowned, because of being seen in a populated urban setting, and then going through a quick transition from a wild existence to receiving interior care associated with efforts to ensure its survival. The bird had a weight of less than two pounds — compared to a 4-5 pound norm — when taken into intensive care, said Denise Lewis of the Omaha urban area, the education coordinator for Raptor Recovery Nebraska. She suitably took responsibility for the errant owl, providing essential liquid nutrients and a safe shelter to bring it back from the brink.

It was certainly a preferable alternative. Rather than having died at some unknown outdoor place, it had a hope for survival since it arrived because of its own unknown inclinations, where many things happened that were so beneficial for this particular Snowy Owl.

Media attention moderated with the arrival of the Thanksgiving holiday, and a greater focus on shopping.

The Omaha owl enjoyed on Thursday, its own unique meal. It was given bite-sized bits of rabbit leg. The meat — carefully cut into pieces of suitable size by care-giver Lewis — was provided during mid-afternoon. My personal effort of feeding with tweezers, was a vastly preferable alternative to watching something like football on television. The special owl sat placidly, and though squinty-eyed, did not hesitate in gulping down each morsel as presented one at a time. Its previous whole food had been pinky mice, and then others of the same sort, though larger.

Snowy Owl at facilities of Raptor Recovery Nebraska.

With a unique expression and presence, this owl of the Arctic wilds has taken on a special cognition. From a personal perspective, this owl is known by the name of Oma, though other moniker's bantered about included QT and Snowball.

Later on the so-called holiday, this feathered wonder was taken southward, to get additional care at the raptor-care headquarters, further south in Nebraska.
On the 24th, both snowy owl patients were doing better, said Betsy Finch, director of the raptor recovery group. "They are eating well, which is a good sign.

"I am cautiously optimistic for both owls," Finch said. Each has been assigned a number, since rehabilitation birds are not named.

With both snowy owls present, Finch said they are males, based upon a side-by-side comparison, and their notably smaller size.

"We are committed to give both owls the best care so they can be returned to the wild," Finch said.

As their condition would improve, they would be placed into a flight cage so as to regain the strength necessary for normal flight. There would then be an eventual release back into the wild, which would probably occur hundreds of miles northward.

"We appreciate people's concern" for raptors needing assistance, Finch said. "Don't assume it looks just fine, but call an expert" if there is some uncertainty.

"Everyone did the right thing," with these owls, she added.

The saga for these mysterious owls — especially the one associated with Omaha — is worthy of a book: Arctic owl flees northerly conditions to end up within a city-scape where a bird enthusiast reports its presence for many others to enjoy, and then due to its weak condition gets rescued — with the situation broadly reported — and then receives special care to help it survive so it may return to its native land in the great north tundra.

Evaluating Bird History Dependent on Newspapers

For a complete evaluation of bird history, newspapers of the bygone era are an essential resource to research.

Their value is indicated by the details derived from a recent, intensive effort, to extract bird records from newspapers published in northern America, primarily prior to 1885.

Results were beyond expectations, with a surprising number of species denoted for nearly every continental state, as well as from Canada.

Search Methods

The primary method to find records was the use of keyword searches at websites with electronic versions of historic newspapers. There are several, with a variety in their presentation which influences their access and functionality. Additional pay-for-access sites were not searched.

At the available e-archives, the following key words or text were search options used: ¶ auklet; ¶ bald eagle, or grey eagle, or headed eagle; ¶ barn owl; ¶ barn swallow; ¶ barred owl; ¶ billed curlew or long billed or sickle billed as a text string or word proximity search; ¶ bittern; ¶ black vulture; ¶ blue bird; ¶ blue crane; ¶ blue heron; ¶ blue jay; ¶ bobolink; ¶ brant flocks as a proximity search; ¶ brown pelican; ¶ brown thrush or thrasher; ¶ bunting; ¶ butcher bird or loggerhead shrike; ¶ calico back; ¶ canvasback or canvas back; ¶ cardinal bird or red bird; ¶ cat-bird; ¶ cedar bird or cherry bird; ¶ chickadee; ¶ chimney swallow; ¶ chimney swift; ¶ common crow; ¶ cormorant; ¶ cowbird; ¶ crossbill; ¶ crow blackbird or grackle or jackdaw; ¶ crowned kinglet; ¶ curlew; ¶ didapper; ¶ dough bird or doe bird; ¶ dove hunt or doves killed in a word proximity search; ¶ duck hawk; ¶ duck hunt; ¶ ducks killed; ¶ dunlin; ¶ eave swallow; ¶ egret; ¶ esquimaux curlew or eskimo curlew or short-billed curlew; ¶ falcon; ¶ fish hawk or osprey; ¶ flicker or yellowhammer; ¶ flight myriads or large flocks or immense flocks or immense flight as terms with ten words of each; ¶ flycatcher; ¶ for the passenger pigeon, used the terms pidgeons, wood pigeon, wild pigeons and pigeon roost terms; ¶ gadwall; ¶ game hunt or game taken; ¶ godwit; ¶ golden eagle; ¶ goldfinch or thistle bird; ¶ gray owl or grey owl; ¶ great auk or penguin; ¶ grosbeak; ¶ ground dove; ¶ grouse; ¶ hangnest or oriole; ¶ headed woodpecker; ¶ horned owl; ¶ house martin; ¶ house swallow; ¶ house wren; ¶ hummingbird; ¶ ibis; ¶ indigo bird; ¶ kildee or killdeer; ¶ kingfisher; ¶ mallard; ¶ martin swallow; ¶ meadowlark or meadow lark; ¶ mockingbird; ¶ nonpariel; ¶ northern shrike; ¶ nuthatch or breasted nuthatch; ¶ ovenbird or crowned thrush; ¶ paroquet or parakeet; ¶ partridge; ¶ petrel; ¶ pheasant; ¶ phoebe bird; ¶ pigeon hawk; ¶ plover; ¶ prairie chicken or prairie hen; ¶ prairie owl; ¶ puffin; ¶ quail; ¶ rail bird; ¶ raven; ¶ redhead duck or red head duck; ¶ reed bird; ¶ robin snipe; ¶ robin song; ¶ ruffed grouse; ¶ sage hen or grouse; ¶ sand hill crane or sand-hill crane; ¶ sandpiper; ¶ scoter; ¶ screech owl; ¶ snipe hunt or shot snipe: words in close proximity; ¶ snipe hunt (often with resultant stories of hilarity); ¶ snow geese; ¶ snow owl or white owl or Arctic owl, using these particular terms, or as also in close proximity; ¶ song sparrow; ¶ sparrow hawk or kestrel; ¶ summer duck or wood duck; ¶ summer warbler; ¶ tip wings: in close proximity; ¶ trumpeter swan; ¶ turkey buzzard; ¶ upland plover; ¶ warbler; ¶ whip-poor-will with and without dashes; ¶ white crane; ¶ white geese; ¶ white heron; ¶ white pelican; ¶ white swan; ¶ whooper; ¶ widgeon; ¶ wild geese flocks or wild geese killed; ¶ wild turkey, as a particular string of the two words, along with turkey flocks killed: terms within a ten word proximity; ¶ winged teal as a text string; ¶ wings measured as a text string or proximity search; ¶ winter wren; ¶ wood grouse; ¶ wood pewee; ¶ wood stork; ¶ woodcock; ¶ yellowlegs.

There was also, in a few instances, a recurring presentation of a birdly topic, which could be located by browsing through a series of issues.

Bird History from Newspapers of Past Times

Results were dependent upon the accuracy of character recognition for the scanned newspaper pages. Also, some of the archival sites had less than adequate search options, sometimes resulting in over-whelming results impossible to filter to any particular focus. Some search options were nearly useless, or to a limited extent, not even available. Despite these limitations the extent of records found was significant. These results are obviously biased to the eastern states of the U.S.A., as their extent of newspaper publication was much more prevalent in the period prior to 1885.

More than 2880 articles were found during this effort, from more than 700 different newspapers, representing a wide perspective of history among the united states, and Canada. This is a list of the papers and where they were issued:

  1. Abilene Reflector - Abilene, Dickinson County, Kansas
  2. Ackley Enterprise - Ackley, Iowa
  3. Adams Herald - Adams, Jefferson County, New York
  4. Alamosa Journal - Alamosa, Alamosa County, Colorado
  5. Albany Argus - Albany, New York
  6. Albany Centinel - Albany, Albany County, New York
  7. Albany Evening Journal - Albany, Albany County, New York
  8. Albany Patriot - Albany, Dougherty County, Georgia
  9. Albert Lea Freeborn County Standard - Albert Lea, Minnesota
  10. Alden Times - Alden, Hardin County, Iowa
  11. Alexandria Advertiser - Alexandria, Virginia
  12. Alexandria Gazette - Alexandria, Virginia
  13. Algona Upper Des Moines - Algona, Iowa
  14. Alton Courier - Alton, Madison County, Illinois
  15. Alton Observer - Alton, Illinois
  16. Alton Review - Alton, Sioux County, Iowa
  17. Alton Telegraph - Alton, Madison County, Illinois
  18. Altoona Tribune - Altoona, Blair County, Pennsylvania
  19. Amenia Times - Amenia Times, Dutchess County, New York
  20. American Beacon - Norfolk, Virginia
  21. American Citizen - New York, New York
  22. American Mercury - Hartford, Connecticut
  23. Americus Recorder - Americus, Sumter County, Georgia
  24. Amsterdam Democrat and Recorder - Amsterdam, New York
  25. Anderson Intelligencer - Anderson Court House, South Carolina
  26. Andrew County Republican - Savannah, Missouri
  27. Anita Times - Anita, Cass County, Iowa
  28. Appleton Motor - Appleton, Outagamie County, Wisconsin
  29. Appleton Post Crescent - Appleton, Outagamie County, Wisconsin
  30. Arizona Citizen - Tucson, Pima County, Arizona
  31. Arkansas Gazette - Little Rock, Arkansas
  32. Ashtabula Telegraph - Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio
  33. Astorian - Astoria, Oregon
  34. Atchison Globe - Atchison, Atchison County, Kansas
  35. Athens Banner - Athens, Georgia
  36. Athens Banner-Watchman - Athens, Georgia
  37. Athens Georgian - Athens, Georgia
  38. Athens Messenger - Athens, Georgia
  39. Atlanta Constitution - Atlanta, Georgia
  40. Atlanta Herald - Atlanta, Georgia
  41. Atlanta Intelligencer - Atlanta, Georgia
  42. Atlanta Opinion - Atlanta, Georgia
  43. Atlanta Sun - Atlanta, Georgia
  44. Atlantic Telegraph - Atlantic, Iowa
  45. Auburn Bulletin - Auburn, New York
  46. Auburn Christian Advocate - Auburn, New York
  47. Auburn Journal - Auburn, New York
  48. Auburn News - Auburn, New York
  49. Auburn News and Democrat - Auburn, New York
  50. Austin Intelligencer-Echo - Austin, Texas
  51. Austin State Gazette - Austin, Texas
  52. Baldwinsville Gazette - Baldwinsville, Onondago County, New York
  53. Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser - Baltimore, Maryland
  54. Baltimore Patriot - Baltimore, Maryland
  55. Bangor Whig and Courier - Bangor, Maine
  56. Bar Harbor Mount Desert Herald - Bar Harbor, Maine
  57. Barnstable Patriot - Barnstable, Barnstable County,
  58. Barre Gazette - Barre, Massachusetts
  59. Barre Patriot - Barre, Massachusetts
  60. Batavia News - Batavia, New York
  61. Batavia Spirit of the Times - Batavia, New York
  62. Bates County Record - Butler, Missouri
  63. Bath Independent - Bath, Sagadahoc County, Maine
  64. Beaver Dam Democrat - Beaver Dam, Wisconsin
  65. Bedford Star - Bedford, Lawrence County, Indiana
  66. Belleville Telescope - Belleville, Republic County, Kansas
  67. Belmont Chronicle - Saint Clairsville, Ohio
  68. Belmont Genesee Valley Post - Belmont, Allegany County, New York
  69. Biddeford Journal - Biddeford, York County, Maine
  70. Binghamton Broome Republican - Binghamton, New York
  71. Birmingham Iron Age - Birmingham, Alabama
  72. Bismarck Tribune - Bismarck, North Dakota
  73. Black Hawk Mining Journal - Black Hawk, Colorado
  74. Bloomsburg Columbian - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  75. Bloomville Mirror - Bloomville, Delaware County, New York
  76. Bolivar Free Press - Bolivar, Polk County, Missouri
  77. Boon's Lick Times - Fayette, Missouri
  78. Boston Advertiser - Boston, Massachusetts
  79. Boston Commercial Gazette - Boston, Massachusetts
  80. Boston Evening-Post - Boston, Massachusetts
  81. Boston Globe - Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts
  82. Boston Intelligencer - Boston, Massachusetts
  83. Boston Messenger - Boston, Massachusetts
  84. Boston News-Letter - Boston, Massachusetts
  85. Boston Post Boy - Boston, Massachusetts
  86. Boston Recorder - Boston, Massachusetts
  87. Boulder County Courier - Boulder, Boulder County, Colorado
  88. Bourbon News - Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky
  89. Brattleboro Eagle - Brattleboro, Vermont
  90. Brattleboro Reporter - Brattleboro, Vermont
  91. Brenham Banner - Brenham, Washington County, Texas
  92. Bristol Bucks County Gazette - Bristol, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
  93. Brockport Republic - Brockport, Monroe County, New York
  94. Brooklyn Eagle - Brooklyn, New York
  95. Brownstown Banner - Brownstown, Indiana
  96. Buffalo Courier - Buffalo, New York
  97. Buffalo Courier and Republic - Buffalo, New York
  98. Buffalo Express - Buffalo, New York
  99. Buffalo Reflex - Buffalo, Missouri
  100. Burlington Advertiser - Burlington, New Jersey
  101. Burlington Free Press - Burlington, Vermont
  102. Burlington Hawk Eye - Burlington, Iowa
  103. Cairo Bulletin - Cairo, Illinois
  104. California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences - San Francisco, California
  105. Cambridge City Tribune - Cambridge City, Wayne County, Indiana
  106. Camden Democrat - Camden, New Jersey
  107. Cape Girardeau Weekly Argus - Cape Girardeau, Missouri
  108. Carbon Advocate - Lehighton, Pennsylvania
  109. Carolina Watchman - Salisbury, Rowan County, South Carolina
  110. Carroll Sentinel - Carroll, Carroll County, Iowa
  111. Catawba Journal - Charlotte, North Carolina
  112. Catskill Recorder - Catskill, New York
  113. Cayuga Chief - Auburn, New York
  114. Cayuga County Independent - Auburn, New York
  115. Cedar Falls Gazette - Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, Iowa
  116. Cedar Rapids Gazette - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  117. Cedar Rapids Times - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  118. Cedar Valley Times - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  119. Centerville Appanoose Times - Centerville, Appanoose County, Iowa
  120. Central City Evening Call - Central City, Colorado
  121. Central City Register - Central City, Gilpin County, Colorado
  122. Central City Register-Call - Central City, Gilpin County, Colorado
  123. Chaffee County Times - Buena Vista, Chaffee County, Colorado
  124. Charleston Courier - Charleston, Mississippi County, Missouri
  125. Charleston News - Charleston, South Carolina
  126. Chatham Courier - Chatham, New York
  127. Chatham Monitor - Chatham, Barnstable County, Massachusetts
  128. Cherokee Advocate - Tahlequah, Oklahoma
  129. Cherry Valley Gazette - Cherry Valley, Otsego County, New York
  130. Chester Times - Chester, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
  131. Chittenango Herald - Chittenango, Madison County, New York
  132. Cincinnati Press - Cincinnati, Ohio
  133. City Gazette and Daily Advertiser - Charleston, South Carolina
  134. Clarksville Standard - Clarksville, Texas
  135. Clearfield Democratic Banner - Clearfield, Pennsylvania
  136. Cleveland Leader - Cleveland, Ohio
  137. Colfax Chronicle - Colfax, Grant Parish, Louisiana
  138. Colorado Banner - Boulder, Boulder County, Colorado
  139. Colorado Chieftain - Pueblo, Pueblo County, Colorado
  140. Colorado Citizen - Columbus, Texas
  141. Colorado Springs Gazette and El Paso County News - Colorado Springs, Colorado
  142. Colorado Transcript - Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado
  143. Columbia Democrat - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  144. Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg General Advertiser - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  145. Columbia Herald - Columbia, Tennessee
  146. Columbia Phoenix - Columbia, South Carolina
  147. Columbian [New York] - New York, New York
  148. Columbian [Pennsylvania] - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  149. Columbian and Democrat - Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania
  150. Columbian Centinel - Boston, Massachusetts
  151. Columbus Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  152. Columbus Enquirer-Sun - Columbus, Georgia
  153. Columbus Journal - Columbus, Platte County, Nebraska
  154. Columbus Sun and Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  155. Connecticut Courant - Hartford, Connecticut
  156. Connecticut Herald - New Haven, Connecticut
  157. Connecticut Journal - New Haven, Connecticut
  158. Connecticut Mirror - Hartford, Connecticut
  159. Connersville Examiner - Connersville, Fayette County, Indiana
  160. Connersville Times - Connersville, Fayette County, Indiana
  161. Corning Journal - Corning, New York
  162. Coshocton Democrat - Coshocton, Ohio
  163. County Paper - Oregon, Missouri
  164. Crown Point Register - Crown Point, Indiana
  165. Cuba Evening Review - Cuba, Allegany County, New York
  166. Cuba True Patriot - Cuba, New York
  167. Daily Alta California - San Francisco, California
  168. Daily Astorian - Astoria, Oregon
  169. Daily Derrick - Oil City, Pennsylvania
  170. Daily Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  171. Daily Iowa Capital - Des Moines, Iowa
  172. Daily Phoenix - Columbia, South Carolina
  173. Daily State Journal - Richmond, Virginia
  174. Dansville Advertiser - Dansville, Livingston County, New York
  175. Danville Hendricks County Republican 1887 - Danville, Hendricks County, Indiana
  176. Danville Hendricks County Union - Danville, Hendricks County, Indiana
  177. Davenport Gazette - Davenport, Iowa
  178. Dawsons Fort Wayne Tribune - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  179. Decatur Republican - Decatur, Iowa
  180. Decatur Review - Decatur, Macon County, Illinois
  181. Dedham Village Register - Dedham, Massachusetts
  182. Delaware Advertiser and Farmers Journal - Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware
  183. Delphi Times - Delphi, Carroll County, Indiana
  184. Denton Journal - Denton, Caroline County, Maryland
  185. DeRuyter New Era-Gleaner - DeRuyter, Madison County, New York
  186. Des Moines Republican - Des Moines, Iowa
  187. Deseret News - Salt Lake City, Utah
  188. Dodge City Times - Dodge City, Ford County, Kansas
  189. Doniphan Prospect - Doniphan, Missouri
  190. Dublin Post - Dublin, Georgia
  191. Dubuque Herald - Dubuque, Iowa
  192. Dubuque Times - Dubuque, Iowa
  193. Dunkirk Observer - Dunkirk, Chautauqua County, New York
  194. Eastern Argus - Portland, Maine
  195. Eau Claire Free Press - Eau Claire, Eau Claire County, Wisconsin
  196. Eau Claire News - Eau Claire, Eau Claire County, Wisconsin
  197. Edwardsville Intelligencer - Edwardsville, Illinois
  198. Elk Advocate - Ridgway, Elk County, Pennsylvania
  199. Elk County Advocate - Ridgway, Elk County, Pennsylvania
  200. Elkhart Democratic Union - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  201. Elkhart Monitor - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  202. Elkhart Observer - Elkhart, Elkhart County, Indiana
  203. Elyria Constitution - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  204. Elyria Courier - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  205. Elyria Independent Democrat - Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio
  206. Emmetsburg Palo Alto Pilot - Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County, Iowa
  207. Erie County Independent - Buffalo and Hamburg, Erie County, New York
  208. Essex County Republican - Keeseville, New York
  209. Evening Gazette - Port Jervis, New York
  210. Evening Mirror - Altoona, Pennsylvania
  211. Evergreen City Times - Sheboygan, Wisconsin
  212. Fair Play - Saint Genevieve
  213. Fairport Herald - Fairport, Monroe County, New York
  214. Farmer's Cabinet - Amherst, New Hampshire
  215. Farmer's Gazette - Sparta, Georgia
  216. Fayetteville Observer - Fayetteville, North Carolina
  217. Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  218. Federal Union - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  219. Forest Republican - Crandon, Wisconsin
  220. Fort Collins Courier - Fort Collins, Colorado
  221. Fort Collins Standard - Fort Collins, Colorado
  222. Fort Morgan Times - Fort Morgan, Weld County, Colorado
  223. Fort Smith Elevator - Fort Smith, Arkansas
  224. Fort Wayne Democrat - Fort Wayne, Indiana
  225. Fort Wayne Gazette - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  226. Fort Wayne Sentinel - Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana
  227. Fort Worth Gazette - Fort Worth, Texas
  228. Frankfort Roundabout - Frankfort, Kentucky
  229. Franklin Gazette - Malone, New York
  230. Franklin Repository - Franklin County, Pennsylvania
  231. Frederick News - Frederick, Maryland
  232. Fredonia Censor - Fredonia, New York
  233. Freeport Bulletin - Freeport, Stephenson County, Illinois
  234. Fremont Journal - Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio
  235. Gallipolis Journal - Gallipolis, Ohio
  236. Galveston Civilian - Galveston, Texas
  237. Galveston Civilian and Gazette - Galveston, Texas
  238. Galveston News - Galveston, Texas
  239. General Advertiser and Political, Commercial, - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  240. Geneseo Democrat - Geneseo, New York
  241. Geneva Advertiser - Geneva, New York
  242. Geneva Courier - Geneva, New York
  243. Geneva Express - Geneva, New York
  244. Geneva Gazette - Geneva, New York
  245. Georgetown Courier - Georgetown, Clear Creek County, Colorado
  246. Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Georgia Journal and - Macon, Georgia
  247. Gettysburg Complier - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  248. Gettysburg Republican - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  249. Gettysburg Republican Complier - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  250. Gettysburg Star - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  251. Gettysburg Star and Sentinel - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  252. Glasgow Times - Glasgow, Missouri
  253. Glenwood Opinion - Glenwood, Iowa
  254. Gloversville Intelligencer - Gloversville, New York
  255. Golden Era - San Francisco, California
  256. Grand Traverse Herald - Traverse City, Grand Traverse County, Michigan
  257. Grant County Herald - Lancaster, Grant County, Wisconsin
  258. Gravesville Calumet Republican - Gravesville, Calumet County, Wisconsin
  259. Green Bay Republican - Green Bay, Wisconsin
  260. Greenville Advance - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  261. Greenville Advance Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  262. Greenville Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  263. Greenville Shenango Valley Argus - Greenville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania
  264. Hagerstown Herald and Torch Light - Hagerstown, Maryland
  265. Hagerstown Mail - Hagerstown, Maryland
  266. Hagerstown Torch Light and Public Advertiser - Hagerstown, Maryland
  267. Hannibal Clipper - Hannibal, Missouri
  268. Hannibal Journal - Hannibal, Marion County, Missouri
  269. Harrisonburg Rockingham Register - Harrisonburg, Rockingham County,
  270. Hartford Herald - Hartford, Kentucky
  271. Haverhill Gazette - Haverhill, Massachusetts
  272. Hawarden Independent - Calliope, Sioux County, Iowa
  273. Hickman Courier - Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky
  274. Highland Messenger - Asheville, North Carolina
  275. Highland News - Hillsborough [Hillsboro], Highland
  276. Hillsboro News-Herald - Hillsboro, Hghland County, Ohio
  277. Hillsdale Standard - Hillsdale, Michigan
  278. Holmes County Farmer - Millersburg, Ohio
  279. Holmes County Republican - Millersburg, Holmes County, Ohio
  280. Holt County Sentinel - Oregon, Holt County, Missouri
  281. Houston Mercury - Houston, Texas
  282. Houston Telegraph and Texas Register - Houston, Texas
  283. Howarden Independent - East Orange, and Calliope, Sioux County,
  284. Hudson Evening Register - Hudson, N.Y.
  285. Hudson North Star - Hudson, St. Croix County, Wisconsin
  286. Hudson River Chronicle - Sing-Sing, Westchester County, New York
  287. Huntingdon Journal - Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
  288. Huntington Long Islander - Huntington, Suffolk County, New York
  289. Huron Reflector - Norwalk, Ohio
  290. Hyde Park Herald - Hyde Park, Illinois
  291. Independent American - Platteville, Wisconsin
  292. Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot - Boston, Massachusetts
  293. Indian Chieftain - Vinita, Craig County, Oklahoma
  294. Indiana Democrat - Indiana, Pennsylvania
  295. Indiana Messenger - Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania
  296. Indiana Progress - Indiana, Indiana County, Pennsylvania
  297. Interior Journal - Stanford, Kentucky
  298. Iola Register - Iola, Kansas
  299. Iowa South West - Bedford, Iowa
  300. Iowa State Register - Des Moines, Iowa
  301. Iowa State Reporter - Waterloo, Black County, Iowa
  302. Ithaca Journal - Ithaca, New York
  303. Jackson Missouri Cash-Book - Jackson, Missouri
  304. Jackson Sentinel - Maquoketa, Iowa
  305. Janesville Democrat - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  306. Janesville Democratic Standard - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  307. Janesville Gazette - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  308. Janesville Gazette and Free Press - Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin
  309. Jefferson Bee - Jefferson, Iowa
  310. Jefferson City Peoples Tribune - Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri
  311. Jefferson City State Journal - Jefferson City, Missouri
  312. Jefferson County Journal - Adams, New York
  313. Jeffersonian - Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  314. Jeffersonian Republican - Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  315. Jeffersonville Evening News - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  316. Jeffersonville National Democrat - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  317. Jeffersonville News - Jeffersonville, Clark County, Indiana
  318. Jones County Liberal - Monticello, Jones County, Iowa
  319. Journal and American - Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
  320. Juniata Sentinel - Mifflintown, Pennsylvania
  321. Kalamazoo Telegraph - Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County, Michigan
  322. Kane Leader - Kane, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  323. Kane Weekly Blade - Kane, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  324. Kansas City Journal of Commerce - Kansas City, Missouri
  325. Kenosha Democrat - Kenosha, Wisconsin
  326. Kenosha Telegraph - Kenosha, Wisconsin
  327. Keowee Courier - Walhalla, South Carolina
  328. Keystone Courier - Connellsville, Pennsylvania
  329. Kingston Freeman - Kingston, Ulster County, New York
  330. Kirksville Graphic - Kirksville, Adair County, Missouri
  331. Knoxville Chronicle - Knoxville, Tennessee
  332. Lancaster Examiner and Herald - Lancaster, Pennsylvania
  333. Lancaster Intelligencer - Lancaster, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
  334. Laramie Sentinel - Laramie, Wyoming
  335. Lawrence Gazette - Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas
  336. Lawrence Journal World - Lawrence, Kansas
  337. Lawrence Republican - Lawrence, Kansas
  338. Lawrence Western Home Journal 1874 - Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas
  339. Le Mars Iowa Liberal - Le Mars, Plymouth County, Iowa
  340. Le Mars Sentinel - Le Mars, Plymouth County, Iowa
  341. Leavenworth Times - Leavenworth, Kansas
  342. Lebanon News - Lebanon, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania
  343. Lehigh Register - Allentown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania
  344. Liberty Tribune - Liberty, Missouri
  345. Lincoln County Herald - Troy, Missouri
  346. Litchburg Sentinel - Litchburg, Massachusetts
  347. Litchfield Monitor - Litchfield, Connecticut
  348. Little Falls Journal and Courier - Little Falls, Herkimer County, New York
  349. Little Falls Mohawk Courier - Little Falls, New York
  350. Livermore Herald - Livermore, Alameda County, California
  351. Livingston Republican - Geneseo, New York
  352. Lockport Journal and Courier - Lockport, Niagara County, New York
  353. Lodi Freeman and Messenger - Lodi, Cattaraugus County, New York
  354. Logansport Chronicle - Logansport, Indiana
  355. Logansport Journal - Logansport, Cass County, Indiana
  356. Logansport News - Logansport, Indiana
  357. Logansport Pharos Tribune - Logansport, Hamilton County, Illinois
  358. Logansport Star - Logansport, Indiana
  359. Long-Island Farmer - Jamaica, New York
  360. Los Angeles Herald - Los Angeles, California
  361. Louisiana Capitalian - Louisiana
  362. Louisiana Democrat - Alexandria, Louisiana
  363. Lowell Courier - Lowell, Massachusetts
  364. Lowell Journal and Courier - Lowell, Massachusetts
  365. Lowville Journal and Republican - Lowville, Lewis County, New York
  366. Loyal Missourian - California, Moniteau County, Missouri
  367. Lyons Wayne Democratic Press - Lyons, New York
  368. Macon Daily Telegraph - Macon, Georgia
  369. Macon Telegraph and Messenger - Macon, Georgia
  370. Madison Democrat - Madison, Wisconsin
  371. Madison Express - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  372. Madison Observer - Morrisville, Madison County, New York
  373. Madison State Journal - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  374. Madison Wisconsin Argus - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  375. Madison Wisconsin Patriot - Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin
  376. Malone Frontier Palladium - Malone, Franklin County, New York
  377. Malvern Leader - Malvern, Mills County, Iowa
  378. Manitoba Free Press - Manitoba, Canada
  379. Manitoba Liberal - Winnipeg, Manitoba
  380. Manitoba News-Letter - Winnipeg, Manitoba
  381. Manitowoc Tribune - Manitowoc, Wisconsin
  382. Marietta Register - Mariette, Georgia
  383. Marion Herald - Marion, Linn County, Iowa
  384. Marshall Democrat - Marshall, Missouri
  385. Marshall Democratic Expounder - Marshall, Michigan
  386. Marshfield Coast Mail - Marshfield, Oregon
  387. Martinsville Morgan County Gazette - Martinsville, Morgan County, Indiana
  388. Massachusetts Spy - Boston, Massachusetts
  389. McConnelsville Conservative - Salem, Ohio
  390. Medina Register - Medina, New York
  391. Memphis Appeal - Memphis, Tennessee
  392. Mexico Independent - Mexico, New York
  393. Middleburgh Post - Middleburgh, Snyder County, Pennsylvania
  394. Middlesex Gazette - Middletown, Connecticut
  395. Milan Exchange - Milan, Gibson County, Tennessee
  396. Milledgeville Union and Recorder - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  397. Milwaukee Evening Courier - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  398. Milwaukee Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  399. Milwaukee News - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  400. Milwaukee Sentinel - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  401. Milwaukee Sentinel and Gazette - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  402. Milwaukee Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  403. Missouri Patriot - Springfield, Missouri
  404. Missouri Republican - St. Louis, Missouri
  405. Missouri State Times - Jefferson City, Missouri
  406. Moniteau Journal - California, Missouri
  407. Monmouth Collegian - Monmouth College, Warren County, Illinois
  408. Montana Post - Virginia City, Montana
  409. Monticello Express - Monticello, Jones County, Iowa
  410. Morning Oregonian - Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon
  411. Morrisville Madison Observer - Morrisville, New York
  412. Mount Carmel Register - Mount Carmel, Illinois
  413. Mount Morris Union - Mount Morris, Livingston County, New
  414. Mount Vernon Fountain and Journal - Mt. Vernon, Lawrence County, Missouri
  415. Mourning Courier and New-York Enquirer - New York, New York
  416. Muskogee Indian Journal - Muskogee, Oklahoma
  417. Naples Record - Naples, Ontario County, New York
  418. Nashville Union and American - Nashville, Tennessee
  419. National Intelligencer - Washington, District of Columbia
  420. National Republican - Washington, District of Columbia
  421. Native Virginian - Orange Court House, Virginia
  422. Neapolitan Record - Naples, New York
  423. Nebraska Advertiser - Brownville, Nemaha County, Nebraska
  424. Nebraska State Journal - Lincoln, Nebraska
  425. Neosho Times - Neosho, Missouri
  426. Neosho Valley Register - Iola, Allen County, Kansas
  427. Nevada State Journal - Reno, Washoe County, Nevada
  428. New Albany Ledger - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  429. New Albany Register - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  430. New Albany Tribune - New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
  431. New Bedford Mercury - New Bedford, Massachusetts
  432. New Brunswick Times - New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New
  433. New Hampshire Gazette - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  434. New Hampshire Patriot - Concord, New Hampshire
  435. New Hampshire Sentinel - Keene, New Hampshire
  436. New Hampshire Spy - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  437. New Haven Gazette - New Haven, Connecticut
  438. New Holland Clarion - New Holland, Pennsylvania
  439. New Orleans Crescent - New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana
  440. New Philadelphia Democrat - New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County, Ohio
  441. New South - Port Royal, South Carolina
  442. New Ulm Review - New Ulm, Brown County, Minnesota
  443. New York Advertiser - New York, New York
  444. New York American for the Country - New York, New York
  445. New York Clipper - New York, New York
  446. New York Commercial Advertiser - New York, New York
  447. New York Evening Express - New York, New York
  448. New York Evening Mirror - New York, New York
  449. New York Evening Post - New York, New York
  450. New York Evening Telegram - New York, New York
  451. New York Gazette - New York, New York
  452. New York Graphic - New York, New York
  453. New York Herald - New York, New York
  454. New York Mercantile Advertiser - New York, New York
  455. New York Mercury - New York, New York
  456. New York New World - New York, New York
  457. New York Spectator - New York, New York
  458. New York Sun - New York, New York
  459. New York Telegram - New York, New York
  460. New York Times - New York, New York
  461. New York Tribune - New York, New York
  462. New York World - New York, New York
  463. New-England Galaxy - Boston, Massachusetts
  464. New-England Journal - Boston, Mass.
  465. New-Hampshire Gazette and Historical Chronicle - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  466. New-Hampshire Patriot - Concord, New Hampshire
  467. New-York Journal - New York City, New York
  468. New-York Spectator - New York, New York
  469. Newbern Sentinel - New Bern, North Carolina
  470. Newburgh News - Newburgh, New York
  471. Newburyport Herald - Newburyport, Massachusetts
  472. Newport Hossier State - Newport, Vermillion County, Indiana
  473. Newport Journal - Newport, Rhode Island
  474. Newport News - Newport, Rhode Island
  475. Newtown Register - Newtown, Long Island, New York
  476. Niagara Falls Gazette - Niagara Falls, Niagara County, New York
  477. North Carolina Whig - Charlotte, North Carolina
  478. North Nebraska Eagle - Dakota City, Nebraska
  479. Northern Vindicator - Estherville, Emmet County, Iowa
  480. Norwich Courier - Norwich, Connecticut
  481. Ogdensburgh Journal - Ogdensburg, New York
  482. Ogdensburgh Sentinel - Ogdensburg, New York
  483. Olney Times - Olney, Richland County, Illinois
  484. Omaha Arrow - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  485. Omaha Bee - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  486. Omaha Herald - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  487. Omaha Nebraskian - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  488. Omaha Republican - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  489. Omaha Tribune - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  490. Omaha World-Herald - Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska
  491. Oneida Morning Herald - Utica, New York
  492. Oneida Sachem - Oneida, Madison County, New York
  493. Orangeburg Times and Democrat - Orangeburg, South Carolina
  494. Oregon County Paper - Oregon, Missouri
  495. Oshkosh Courier - Oshkosh, Winnebago County, Wisconsin
  496. Oshkosh Northwestern - Oshkosh, Wisconsin
  497. Oskaloosa Independent - Oskaloosa, Kansas
  498. Oswego Commercial Times - Oswego, New York
  499. Oswego Palladium - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  500. Oswego Press - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  501. Oswego Times and Express - Oswego, Oneida County, New York
  502. Otsego Farmer - Cooperstown, New York
  503. Otsego Herald - Cooperstown, New York
  504. Otsego Union - Otsego, Allegan County, Michigan
  505. Ouachita Telegraph - Monroe, Louisiana
  506. Pacific Rural Press - San Francisco, California
  507. Painesville Telegraph - Painesville, Lake County, Ohio
  508. Palo Alto Recorder - Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County, Iowa
  509. Pennsylvania Gazette - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  510. Pennsylvania Mercury and Universal Advertiser - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  511. People's Vindicator - Natchitoches, Louisiana
  512. Perrysburg Journal - Perrysburg, Ohio
  513. Petersburg Index and Appeal - Petersburg, Virginia
  514. Phelps County New Era - Rolla, Missouri
  515. Philadelphia Evening Bulletin - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  516. Philadelphia Evening Telegraph - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  517. Philadelphia Gazette of the United States - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  518. Philadelphia Press - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  519. Pine Plains Register - Pine Plains, New York
  520. Piqua Miami Helmet - Piqua, Miami County, Ohio
  521. Pittsburgh Morning Post - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  522. Pittsfield Sun - Pittsfield, Massachusetts
  523. Plattsburgh Republican - Plattsburgh, Clinton County, New York
  524. Plymouth Journal - Plymouth, Massachusetts
  525. Port Jervis Evening Gazette - Port Jervis, New York
  526. Portage la Prairie Tribune-Review - Portage la Prairie, Manitoba
  527. Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics - Portsmouth, New Hampshire
  528. Portsmouth Times - Portsmouth, Ohio
  529. Postville Review - Postville, Allamakee County, Iowa
  530. Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle - Poughkeepsie, New York
  531. Poulson's American Advertiser - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  532. Prescott Transcript - Prescott, Pierce County, Wisconsin
  533. Princeton Union - Princeton, Mille Lacs County, Minnesota
  534. Progressive Batavian - Batavia, Genesee County, New York
  535. Providence Gazette - Providence, Rhode Island
  536. Providence Patriot - Providence, Rhode Island
  537. Providence Post - Providence, Rhode Island
  538. Pulaski Democrat - Pulaski, New York
  539. Putnam County Courier - Carmel, New York
  540. Quincy Herald - Quincy, Illinois
  541. Quincy Journal - Quincy, Illinois
  542. Quincy Whig - Quincy, Illinois
  543. Quincy Whig and Republican - Quincy, Illinois
  544. Racine Argus - Racine, Wisconsin
  545. Racine County Argus - Racine County, Wisconsin
  546. Racine Journal - Racine, Racine County, Wisconsin
  547. Racine Morning Advocate - Racine, Wisconsin
  548. Racine News - Racine, Wisconsin
  549. Randolph Weekly Wanderer - Randolph, Orange County, Vermont
  550. Red Bank Register - Red Bank, Monmouth County, New Jersey
  551. Red Cloud Chief - Red Cloud, Webster County, Nebraska
  552. Red Wing Grange Advance - Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota
  553. Red Wing Sentinel - Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota
  554. Reese River Reveille - Austin, Nevada
  555. Reno Evening Gazette - Reno, Washoe County, Nevada
  556. Republican Compiler - Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  557. Republican Star - Easton, Maryland
  558. Rhode Island American - Providence, Rhode Island
  559. Rhode Island Gazette - Newport, Rhode Island
  560. Rhode Island Republican - Newport, Rhode Island
  561. Richland County Observer - Richland Center, Richland County, Wisconsin
  562. Richmond Democrat - Richmond, Ray County, Missouri
  563. Richmond Dispatch - Richmond, Virginia
  564. Richmond Enquirer - Richmond, Virginia
  565. Rochester Republican - Rochester, New York
  566. Rochester Union and Advertiser - Rochester, New York
  567. Rocky Mountain News - Denver, Denver County, Colorado
  568. Rolla Weekly Herald - Rolla, Missouri
  569. Roman Citizen - Rome, Oneida County, New York
  570. Rome Sentinel - Rome, Oneida County, New York
  571. Rutland County Herald - Rutland, Vermont
  572. Rutland Globe - Rutland, Vermont
  573. Rutland Herald - Rutland, Vermont
  574. Sacramento Record - Sacramento, California
  575. Sacramento Record Union - Sacramento, California
  576. Sacramento Union - Sacramento, California
  577. Sag Harbor Corrector - Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  578. Sag Harbor Express - Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  579. Saint Paul Globe - Saint Paul, Minnesota
  580. Salem Gazette - Salem, Massachusetts
  581. Salem Northern Post - Salem, New York
  582. Saline County Journal - Salina, Kansas
  583. Saline County Progress - Marshall, Missouri
  584. Salt Lake Herald - Salt Lake City, Utah
  585. Salt Lake Tribune - Salt Lake City, Utah
  586. San Antonio Light - San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
  587. Sauk County Standard - Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin
  588. Schoharie Union - Schoharie, Schoharie County, New York
  589. Sedalia Bazoo - Sedalia, Pettis County, Missouri
  590. Sedalia Democrat - Sedalia, Pettis County, Missouri
  591. Semi-weekly Interior Journal - Stanford, Kentucky
  592. Semi-weekly Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  593. Shawano County Herald - Shawano, Wisconsin
  594. Shawano County Journal - Shawano, Shawano County, Wisconsin
  595. Shenandoah Herald - Woodstock, Virginia
  596. Shenango Valley Argus - Greenville, Pennsylvania
  597. Silver Cliff Herald - Silver Cliff, Custer County, Colorado
  598. Sioux County Herald - Orange City, Iowa
  599. Sioux County Independent - Calliope, Sioux County, Iowa
  600. Skaneateles Courier and Republican - Skaneateles, Onondago County, New York
  601. Skaneateles Free Press - Skaneateles, Onondago County, New York
  602. Smethport McKean Miner - Smethport, McKean County, Pennsylvania
  603. Smoky Hill and Republican Union - Junction City, Geary County, Kansas
  604. Somerset Herald - Princess Anne, Maryland
  605. South Side Signal - Babylon, Long Island, Suffolk County,
  606. Southern Banner - Athens, Georgia
  607. Southern Recorder - Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia
  608. Southern Watchman - Athens, Georgia
  609. Southern Whig - Athens, Georgia
  610. Sparta Eagle - Sparta, Monroe County, Wisconsin
  611. Spencer Clay County News - Spencer, Iowa
  612. Spirit Lake Beacon - Spirit Lake, Dickinson County, Iowa
  613. Spirit of the Times - New York, New York
  614. Springfield Globe-Republic - Springfield, Ohio
  615. Springfield Leader - Springfield, Christian County, Missouri
  616. St. Cloud Democrat - St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minnesota
  617. St. Cloud Journal - St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minnesota
  618. St. Genevieve Fair Play - Saint Genevieve, Missouri
  619. St. George Union - Saint George, Utah
  620. St. Joseph Gazette - Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri
  621. St. Joseph Herald - Saint Joseph, Michigan
  622. St. Lawrence Republican - Ogdensburg, New York
  623. St. Lawrence Republican and Ogdensburg Weekly Journal - Ogdensburg, New York
  624. St. Louis Missouri Republican - Saint Louis, Missouri
  625. St. Paul Globe - Saint Paul, Minnesota
  626. Stamford Mirror - Stamford, Delaware County, New York
  627. Stark County Democrat - Canton, Ohio
  628. State Gazette - Austin, Texas
  629. State Journal - Madison, Wisconsin
  630. Sterling Gazette - Sterling, Illinois
  631. Sterling Standard - Sterling, Whiteside County, Illinois
  632. Stevens Point Journal - Stevens Point, Wisconsin
  633. Stevens Point Lumberman - Stevens Point, Portage County, Wisconsin
  634. Stevens Point Wisconsin Pinery - Stevens Point, Portage County, Wisconsin
  635. Sumner Gazette - Sumner, Bremer County, Iowa
  636. Sumter Republican - Americus, Sumter County, Georgia
  637. Sumter Watchman and Southron - Sumter, Sumter County, South Carolina
  638. Sunbury American - Sunbury, Northumberland County,
  639. Sunbury American and Shamokin Journal - Sunbury, Northumberland County,
  640. Sunny South - Atlanta, Georgia
  641. Superior Chronicle - Superior, Douglas County, Wisconsin
  642. Sycamore True Republican - Sycamore, De Kalb County, Illinois
  643. Syracuse Courier and Union - Syracuse, Onondaga County, New York
  644. Syracuse Evening Chronicle - Syracuse, New York
  645. Syracuse Journal - Syracuse, New York
  646. Syracuse Standard - Syracuse, New York
  647. The Country - Georgia
  648. Thomas County Cat - Colby, Thomas County, Kansas
  649. Thomasville Times - Thomasville, Thomas County, Georgia
  650. Tiffin Tribune - Tiffin, Hillsdale County, Ohio
  651. Tioga Eagle - Wellsboro, Pennsylvania
  652. Titusville Morning Herald - Titusville, Pennsylvania
  653. Tombstone Epitaph - Tombstone, Arizona
  654. Torch Light - Hagerstown, Maryland
  655. Trenton Federalist - Trenton, New Jersey
  656. Troy Herald - Troy, Missouri
  657. Union County Star and Lewisburg Chronicle - Lewisburg, Union County, Pennsylvania
  658. Union Springs Advertiser - Union Springs, Cayuga County, New York
  659. Urbana Union - Urbana, Ohio
  660. Utica Gazette - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  661. Utica Herald - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  662. Utica Morning Herald and Daily Gazette - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  663. Utica Observer - Utica, Oneida County, New York
  664. Valentine Reporter - Valentine, Cherry County, Nebraska
  665. Vermont Farmer - Saint Johnsbury, Vermont
  666. Vermont Gazette - Bennington, Vermont
  667. Vermont Phoenix - Brattleboro, Vermont
  668. Vermont Transcript - Saint Albans, Vermont
  669. Vermont Watchman - Montpelier, Vermont
  670. Village Register - Dedham, Massachusetts
  671. Wachusett Star - Barre, Massachusetts
  672. Waco Examiner - Waco, Texas
  673. Warren Ledger - Warren County, Pennsylvania
  674. Washington Evening Critic - Washington, District of Columbia
  675. Washington Globe - Washington, District of Columbia
  676. Washington National Intelligencer - Washington, District of Columbia
  677. Waterloo Courier - Waterloo, Black Hawk County, Iowa
  678. Watertown Democrat - Wattertown, Jefferson County, Wisconsin
  679. Watertown Re-Union - Watertown, Jefferson County, New York
  680. Watertown Times - Watertown, New York
  681. Waterville Times - Waterville, New York
  682. Waukesha County Democrat - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  683. Waukesha Freeman - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  684. Waukesha Plaindealer - Waukesha, Wisconsin
  685. Waupun Times - Waupun, Wisconsin
  686. Waynesboro Village Record - Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
  687. Weekly Columbus Enquirer - Columbus, Georgia
  688. Weekly Georgia Telegraph - Macon, Georgia
  689. Weekly Kansas Chief - Troy, Kansas
  690. Weekly Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  691. Wellsboro Agitator - Wellsboro, Tioga County, Pennsylvania
  692. Wellsville Alleghany County Reporter - Wellsville, Alleghany County, New York
  693. Western Argus - Lyons, Wayne County, New York
  694. Western Carolinian - Salisbury, Rowan County, North Carolina
  695. Western Kansas World - WeKeeney, Trego County, Kansas
  696. Western Reserve Chronicle - Warren, Trumbull County, Ohio
  697. White Cloud Kansas Chief - White Cloud, Kansas
  698. Whitewater Register - Whitewater, Wisconsin
  699. Wichita City Eagle - Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kansas
  700. Willamette Farmer - Salem, Oregon
  701. Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin - Williamsport, Pennsylvania
  702. Williamsport Lycoming Gazette - Williamsport, Pennsylvania
  703. Wilmingtonian and Delaware Advertiser - Wilmington, Delaware
  704. Winnipeg Free Press - Winnipeg, Canada
  705. Winnipeg Standard - Winnipeg, Canada
  706. Winona Record - Winona, Minnesota
  707. Winona Republican - Winona, Minnesota
  708. Wisconsin Democrat - Green Bay, Wisconsin
  709. Wisconsin Free Democrat - Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  710. Wisconsin Patriot - Madison, Wisconsin
  711. Wisconsin State Journal - Madison, Wisconsin
  712. Woodbridge Independent Hour - Woodbridge, Middlesex County, New Jersey
  713. Worthington Gazette - Worthington, Green County, Indiana
  714. Wyoming County Mirror - Warsaw, New York
  715. Yellowstone Journal [a.k.a. Daily Yellowstone Journal] - Miles City, Montana
  716. Zanesville Courier - Zanesville, Muskingum County, Ohio

The first known instance of importance was issued in 1723 by an eastern newspaper. Other articles of interested continued in an increasing frequency, through the mid-1880s. Several other with historic details are known for Nebraska due to previous times when individual issues were reviewed as available on microfilm. A remembrance conveyed in one article extends the time back to 1675.

More than 5900 records were located and recorded according to specific details, including bird name, place, date, and source. This is an indication for the U.S. states with the greater amount of records:

New York: 714
Nebraska: 685
Iowa: 487
Pennsylvania: 367
Wisconsin: 293
Georgia: 279
California: 251
New Jersey: 247
Massachusetts: 233
Illinois: 222
Missouri: 213
Kansas: 204
Indiana: 166
Ohio: 147
Minnesota: 143
Florida: 120
Maryland: 117
Texas: 103

There are certainly more available ...

In an evaluation of species, the Passenger Pigeon, based upon the known results, was most prominently reported on the pages of the newspapers. A tally for this particular focus, indicates these results, for those species most prominently mentioned, with the common name given based upon 2012 nomenclature presented by the International Ornithological Council:

Passenger Pigeon - 919 derived records
Greater Prairie Chicken - 431 derived records
Bald Eagle - 365
Canada Goose - 234
Northern Bobwhite - 212
Wild Turkey - 150
Snowy Owl - 135
American Robin - 127
Eastern Bluebird - 115
Wilson's Snipe - 94
Mallard - 93
Sandhill Crane - 82
American Woodcock - 70
American White Pelican - 68
American Crow - 59
Purple Martin - 50
Ruffed Grouse - 48
Mourning Dove - 47
Great Blue Heron - 46
Blue-winged Teal - 39
Canvasback - 38
Trumpeter Swan - 37
Killdeer - 33
Northern Shoveler - 32
Golden Eagle - 32
Sora - 32
American Wigeon - 31

Overall, at least 273 species were mentioned among the expressively different articles of particular interest discovered thus far.

This is a rather terse report of what the newspapers convey, but it would require a multitude of more words to express what the can be learned searching pages of print, formerly published in their entirety. It would also require e-payment or a credit card to pay for unlimited access.

Some of the especially interesting articles have been typed in their entirety, and already presented here on this blog.